Iberiana – იბერია გუშინ, დღეს, ხვალ

სოჭი, აფხაზეთი, სამაჩაბლო, დვალეთი, ჰერეთი, მესხეთი, ჯავახეთი, ტაო-კლარჯეთი იყო და მუდამ იქნება საქართველო!!!

•მაისაშვილი- ქართული სახელმწიფოს მშენებლობისთვის I

 

ქართული ფონტი – Georgian font

 

გია მაისაშვილი  

 

qarTuli saxelmwifos mSeneblobisTvis

 

& winasityvaoba 
& inovatoruli partiis roli
& politikosebi 
& lideris funqcia
& ekonomikuri disciplinis SesaZleblobebi da SezRudvebi
& ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dRemde arsebul modelTa Sefaseba
& axali globaluri garemo ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis
& kulturuli filtrebi (Glocalization)
& 21-e saukunis sazogadoeba
& saxelmwifos roli qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi 
& marTvis xelovneba
& Sokebi, makropolitika da socialuri konfliqtebi
& importis mniSvneloba 
& eqsportis SesaZlebloba
& qarTuli `Silicon Valley~ _ inovaciebis xeoba
& regionaluri politika 
& SesaZlebelia saqarTvelos dangreuli ekonomikis fexze dayeneba?! 
& Cveni gamarjveba ara marto SesaZlebelia, aramed gardauvalia 
& socialuri usafrTxoebis bade 
& socialuri seqtori 
& gadinebuli kadrebi 
& codnis sazogadoeba
& daskvna 
 

winasityvaoba 

Tanamedrove sazogadoeba dRes dgas axali epoqis mijnaze. es iqneba epoqa samyaros aqamde uprecendento daaxlovebis, arsebuli statusqvos winaaRmdeg amboxebisa da teqnologiuri ganviTarebis warmoudgeneli tempebis. civilizaciis sworxazovani ganviTareba mzardi progresisa da gaumjobesebis gziT, Cvens Tvalwin warsuls bardeba. XXI saukuneSi cvlilebebi iqneba moulodneli, radikaluri, harmoniuli procesebis gamwyveti. swored es cvlilebebi qmnis kacobriobis istoriaSi aqamde gaugonari SesaZleblobebis pirobebs. sxvaoba ocnebasa da mis realur aRsrulebas Soris, arasodes yofila ase Semcirebuli. dRes Cven mxolod Cveni warmosaxvisa da improvizaciis unariT varT SezRudulni, sxva mxriv ki yvelaferi SesaZlebelia.

wina epoqaSi dawinaurebuli industriuli gigantebi, dasavleTis wamyvani qveynebi da maTi korporaciebi, Tanmimdevruli gaumjobesebis gziT, sul ufro da ufro afarTovebdnen sxvaobas maT da danarCen samyaros Soris. axalgazrda saxelmwifoebsa Tu kompaniebs xangrZlivi, etapobrivi, evoluciuri gzis gavla sWirdebodaT, raTa cotaTi mainc miaxlovebodnen samyaros liderebs. magram axali epoqa, romelic Cvens Tvalwin ibadeba radikalurad cvlis arsebul realobas. msoflio finansuri bazris demokratizaciisa da SedarebiT advilad xelmisawvdomobis gamo, teqnologiuri revoluciis swrafi tempiT difuziis pirobebSi, inteleqtualur sakuTrebaze dafuZnebuli codnis ekonomika SesaZlebelia Seiqmnas rogorc mdidar da warmatebul, aseve aqamde CamorCenil da Rarib qveynebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki postkomunisturi sivrcis qveynebSi, romlebsac tradiciulad maRalkvalificirebuli codnis muSakebi hyavT. amitom Sesabamisi fizikuri da socialuri infrastruqturebis Camoyalibebis pirobebSi saqarTvelos aqvs SesaZlebloba gaxdes codnaze da ineleqtualur sakuTrebaze dafuZnebuli mowinave ekonomikis qveyana. Tu Cvens qveyanas surs, rom mis moqalaqeebs hqondes msoflio klasis samuSao adgili da xelfasi, maSin Cvenma qveyanam unda uzrunvelyos, rom TiToeuli moqalaqe iyo msoflio klasis ganaTlebis matarebeli. teqnologiuri revolucia da saerTaSoriso integrireba lideris rolis SeZenisa da warmatebis swrafad miRwevis gaugonar SesaZleblobebs aZlevs axalgazrda saxelmwifoebs, axal inovatorul kompaniebs da individebs. iseT ubralo qveyanas, rogoric saqarTveloa, SeuZlia dinamiuri ekonomikis swrafi Camoyalibeba. ubralo adamianebs, rogorebic TiToeuli CvenTagania, miuxedavad imisa ofSkviTSia dabadebuli Tu parizSi, SeuZliaT msoflio masStabis warmatebis miRweva. arasdros yofila kacobriobis istoriaSi ukeTesi xana axladdamwyebTaTvis, uqonelTaTvis, saxelmwifo iqneba is Tu pirovneba, warmatebis misaRwevad, da statusqvos Sesacvlelad.

rasakvirvelia, yvela epoqas moaqvs Tavisi momxibvleli da amave dros nakleb momxibvleli movlenebi da am axal epoqasac sakmaod aqvs orive. magram Cven gvaqvs yvela piroba am SemTxvevaSi viyoT ufro imedianni, vidre SeSfoTebulni, rameTu am epoqas moaqvs Cveni qveynisaTvis da mTeli kacobriobisaTvis SesaZleblobebi, romlebic arasodes yofila ase realuri. am pirobebSi lodini, wuwuni, Tavis marTleba, damRupvelia. gamarjveba SesaZlebelia mxolod sakuTari Tavis rwmeniT, codniT, inovaciiT, iniciativiT, optimizmiT. Tu es gaqvs ofSkviTeli daamarcxebs parizels, gurjaaneli londonels, goreli niu-iorkels.

mkiTxvels SeiZleba daebados kiTxva, Cveni ideologiuri orientaciis Sesaxeb. es memarcxene dokumentia, Tu memarjvene? saiTken aris mimarTuli Cveni orientacia? Cven vlaparakobT bazris meqanizmis efeqturobaze, rac memarjvene poziciaa da amave dros mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia mTavrobis rolic, rac rasakvirvelia erTi SexedviT memarcxene pozicias uaxlovdeba. neba momeciT, aqve pirdapir davafiqsiro Cveni orientacia. problematuroba zogierTi politikosebis azrovnebaSi aris is, rom isini Tavs warmoidgenen statikuri horizontaluri afscisis marcxniv an marjvniv da cdiloben, rac SeiZleba meti xma miiRon da meti xalxi miimxron maTi mTavari poziciisa da saTqmelis burusSi moqceviTa da centrisken gadaadgilebiT. magram me vuyureb politikas, rogorc dinamiur vertikalur xazs, romelic ara memarcxene-memarjvened aris dayofili, aramed gayofilia warsulad da momavlad. politikis zogierTi aspeqti erTi SexedviT SeiZleba aRiqmebodes liberalur an konservatorul mimarTulebad, magram mTavaria politikosi iyos momavlis xazze, romelsac aqvs xedva Tu saiT unda waiyvanos qveyana, visac SeuZlia ganWvritos ra iqneba aTi, oci wlis Semdeg. magaliTad teqnologia, ganaTleba, sazogadoebrivi solidaroba ar aris memarcxene an memarjvene, liberaluri an konservatoruli Sexeduleba. es aris universaluri politika, momavlis politika, Cveni politika.

ramodenime sityva msurs aseve vTqva saqarTveloSi gabatonebul sxvaze gadabralebisa da pasuximgeblobisagan gaqcevis gavrcelebul tendenciaze. warumatebel qveynebSi xSirad svaven kiTxvas: ram gamoiwvia Cveni CamorCeniloba? Cveni siRaribe? vin Cagvagdo am dReSi? da eZeben raRac SeTqmulebas, konspiraciul Teorias, magram ufro brZnuli da konstruqciuli nawili mizezs qveynis gareSe ZalebSi (imperialistebi, mtrebi da a.S.) ki ar eZebs, aramed mis SigniT, sakuTar TavSi. aq ki marTebulia SekiTxva _ ra gavakeTeTD arasworad? es ki migviyvans mTavar SekiTxvamde _ rogor SeiZleba Secdomis gamosworeba? rogor SevcvaloT es savalalo mdgomareoba? swored aseT SekiTxvebze pasuxSi devs momavlis imedi. is adamianebi, romlebic mizezs qveynis gareT xedaven da sxvebs abraleben, xsnasac sxvisgan da qveynis garedan elian. es ki qveynis samudamo marcxisTvis ganwirvas niSnavs, radgan aravin eZebs qveynis Rrma da safuZvliani avadmyofobisgan gankurvnis gzas. dRes saqarTveloSi, Zalze gavrcelebulia yvelafris sxvebze dabraleba, gansakuTrebiT ki gareSe Zalebze, magaliTad ruseTze. ruseTi rom sxva qveynebis saqmeebSi Carevis codvebiTaa damZimebuli, amaSi aravis darwmuneba ar aris saWiro, magram Cveni mTavari problema Cveni sazogadoebis SigniTaa dabudebuli da pasuxismgeblobis aReba swored rom pirveli nabijia am problemis gadasaWrelad. yovelgvari daxmareba garedan uSedego iqneba Tu adgilze unarianad, produqtiulad da mizanmimarTulad ar iqneba gamoyenebuli. humanitaruli daxmareba garda gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebisa, mxolod zrdis am avadmyofuri damokidebulebis mentalitets da qveyanas zianis mets arafers moutans. ai magaliTad eiforia, romelic Seiqmna saqarTveloSi amerikis jarebis Semosvlis irgvliv. darwmunebiT SemiZlia vTqva, rom rogorc ar unda mixarodes amerikelebis Semosvla, aramgonia amerikelebma SeZlon korufciis, arakompetenturobis, uunaro mmarTvelobis da qveynis Sida aSlilobis problemis gadawyveta saqarTveloSi. es mxolod da mxolod Cveni gasakeTebelia da amas rac ufro swrafad gavacnobierebT miT ufro swrafad daviwyebT problemis aRmosafxvrelad zrunvas.

1990 wlis gazafxulze z. gamsaxurdiam, me da Cems megobrebs gogita cucqiriZesa da irakli koplataZes, gvTxova mrgvali magidis ekonomikuri programis dawera. maSin Cvens imdroindel qarTvel ekonomistebs vTxoveT Tavisi specializaciiT monawileoba mieRoT am proeqtSi. me maxsovs, am proeqtis sajarod leqciebis wakiTxvas, ra didi gamoxmaureba mohyva da ramdeni momxre da gulSematkivari SegvZina. mrgvali magidis maSindeli oponentebic ki yovelTvis pozitiurad ixseniebdnen Cvens programas. 1990 wlis daZabuli saarCevno dReebis da programis irgvliv gamarTuli imdroindeli diskusiebi Cemi cxovrebis erT-erT yvelaze bednier mogonebad darCa. maSin albaT Znelad davijerebdi, rom 13 wlis Semdeg 2003 wlis zafxulSi, Cemi qveynidan moSorebuli, politikur devnilobaSi myofi _ hiustonSi, texasis StatSi, aw ukve mixeil saakaSvilis TxovniT momixdeboda saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi mSeneblobis principebsa da filosofiaze programis dawera. am sityvebs hiustonis finansuri centris caTambjenis 43-e sarTulze moTavsebuli Cemi ofisis myudro garemoSi vwer. Cems Tvalwin msoflioSi yvelaze dinamiuri da efeqturi amerikuli ekonomika Tavisi Cveuli ritmiT cxovrobs. Cems win, ofisis Taroze Cemi Svilebis suraTebi da maTi brdRviala Tvalebi Semomcqerian. xandaxan es yvelaferi
grZeli sizmari mgonia, romlisgan gamoRviZebuls kvlav erT-erT sawarmoSi amomrCevlebTan Sexvedra melis, sadac Cveulebriv adamianebs, mSromelebs iseTiveebs, rogorc Cemi mSoblebi arian, unda avuxsna, rom bednieri saqarTvelos mSenebloba Cven yvelas erTad xelgvewifeba.

Soreul fiqrebs Cems ofisSi Semosuli kolega arRvevs, romelic maxsenebs, rom naxevar saaTSi saaqto darbazSi unda viyo, teleproeqtori mzadaa, teqnikuri aRWurva dasrulebulia. didi auditoria biznesis liderebis, akademiisa da mTavrobis warmomadgenlebiT ukve gadaWedilia. Cemi prezentacia _ `korporaciuli mmarTveloba da qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTareba~,_ amerikaSi Zalian aqtualuria da saboloo koncentrirebisaTvis sul raRac aTi wuTi mrCeba. am sakiTxebze interesi da eqspertizis gamomuSaveba, Cemi qveynis mSeneblobis dauokebelma survilma Camagona. am auditoriis winaSe vlaparakob amerikaze, evropaze da vgulisxmob saqarTvelos. Tvali isev Cemi Svilebis bednieri Rimilisaken gamirbis, swored maTi da yvela Cveni Svilis gamo, bednieri da jansaRi saqarTvelos aSenebis imedi da survili maZlevs Zalas warmatebisa da gamrjvebisa. Zmebo Cveni damarcxeba ar SeiZleba. Cvens ukan Cveni Svilebi da maTi gulwrfeli Tvalebia. marTalia es konkretuli naSromi miSa saakaSvilis TxovniT daiwera, magram igi yvela
qarTvelze, Cvens momavalze fiqriT daiwera da yvela qarTvels eZRvneba. 1990 wels Cvens programas `romantiuli ekonomika~ vuwode. dro gavida gavWaRaravdiT, codna da gamocdileba Segvemata. qveyana Seicvala gadatrialeba moxda, magram guli ar Secvlila. romantizmi, idealizmi, msaxureba isev wamyvania.
 

1. inovatoruli partiis roli

saqarTveloSi gamefebuli stagnaciis, korufciisa da uimedobis fonze umniSvnelovanesi roli eniWeba momavlis partias. momavlis partiis mTavri daniSnulebaa itvirTos is axali funqcia, romlis SesrulebiTac axali ideebi, 21-e saukunis sazogadoebis Camomyalibebeli da misi warmatebis ganmsazRvreli faqtorebi mosaxleobis farTo masebis gansjisa da dialogis sagnad iqceva.

Cven dRes gvesaWiroeba sruliad axali tipis adamianebi xelisuflebaSi, magram gvyavs ki politikosebi da moRvaweni, romlebsac esmiT Tu ra sWirdeba qveyanas XXI saukuneSi da arian ki mzad mis gansaxorcieleblad? gvyavs ki xalxi visTvisac xmis micema Rirs? iqneb sazogadoeba imsaxurebs iseT liderebs, rogoric Tavad sazogadoebaa? da mainc saidan modian es liderebi? rodis warmoSobs sazogadoeba Rirseul liderebs? me mgoni maSin, rodesac sazogadoeba Tavad aimaRlebs moTxovnas, rom axal, ufro maRal standartsa da kriteriums dausaxavs Tavis Tavsac da momaval liderebsac da maSin mjera rom isinic umal gamoCndebian, mxolod sazogadoebam moindomos, mxolod maRali kriteriumi normad gaixados. aseve sazogadoebam unda SeZlos Tavisi wiaRidan gamosuli Tavdadebuli liderisa da msaxuris mofrTxileba da dacva aTasi juris talaxis msrolelisa da Waobis binadarisagan, raTa maT ver gabedon xelis aRmarTva momaval iliaze. maSin CvenTan aucileblad gamoCndebian momavali iliebi, isini xom TiToeul CvenTaganSia. TiToeul Cvengans gvakisria lideris roli, rameTu Tavisufali da SesaZleblobebis sazogadoeba upirvelesad pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT aRsavse sazogadoebaa da aseT sazogadoebaSi TiToeuli Cvenganisgan raRac momentSi, raRac sferoSi liderobas moiTxovs Cveni qveyana. Cveni qveyana, dRes daavadebuli da sarecels mijaWvuli, eqimbaSebis xelSi aRmoCnda, romelic avadmyofs ufro umZimebs mdgomareobas. magram gavixsenoT, CvenSi xom gamorCeul eqims dastaqars eZaxian, hoda Cvens avadmyofs, Cvens qveyanas dastaqari sWirdeba da ara eqimbaSi, Cven gvinda moRvaweni da ara politikosebi, didostatni da ara xelosnebi, liderebi da ara laCrebi. axla mTavaria Cveni sazogadoebis xelCaqneuli da uimedod darCenili 75% CavabaT politikur procesebSi, romlis gareSec axali mentaluri modeli, axali TamaSi, axali paradigma ar Seiqmneba. es qveyana Tqven gekuTvniT, Tqvens Cum Sromasa da msaxurobaze hkidia Cveni qveynis, Cveni Svilebis bedi, nu davuTmobT mas eqimbaSebsa da politikosebs. Cven erTad unda SevqmnaT Cveni Svilebis momavali, momavali, sadac Tavis gasaWirTan martodmarto sabrZolvelad aravin darCeba, momavali sadac `sxvisi Wiri Robes Cxiri~ miuRebeli iqneba, momavali sadac warmatebis kriteriumi Sroma, niWi da msaxureba iqneba, momavali sadac mTavari iqneba: SesaZlebloba, pasuxismgebloba da socialuri solidaroba, es iqneba burji, romelsac qarTuli saxelmwifo daefuZneba. Cemi es naSromic am sami ZiriTadi principis irgvliv aris Sesrulebuli.

Tu Cveni qveynis realobas Tvals gadavavlebT davrwmundebiT, rom Cvens, e.w. mTavrobis liderebs, Zalauflebis gareSe cxovreba ar SeuZliaT, magaliTad SevarnaZes, erTi dRec ki ar ucxovria rogorc Cveulebriv moqalaqes, isini erTi dRec ver icxovreben Zalauflebis gareSe. amitom maT warmodgenac ara aqvT Tu rogor cxovrobs saSualo moqalaqe. isini Zalauflebas ver Seelevian imitom, rom es aris erTaderTi rac maT ician, maTi cxovreba Raribia, mxolod erTi gataceba aqvT, Tu rogor maoxdinon fardis miRma manipulireba da intrigebis qselis gabma. maT meti interesi ara aqvT cxovrebaSi, maT arc profesia aqvT rom dabrundnen da warmatebulni iyvnen, rogorc magaliTad eqimi, maswavlebeli, inJineri, ekonomisti, mentori, biznes organizatori, mecnieri, iuristi, mwerali, mxatvari da a.S. hoda, roca Cven liders virCevT, yovelTvis gaviTvaliswinoT aqvT Tu ara maT miRwevebi raime sferoSi, gataceba, profesia, rasac isini daubrundebian. SeuZliaT Tu ara maT dabrundnen politikidan da mTavrobidan da aswavlon studentebs, SeuZliaT Tu araYmaT marTva raime organizaciis, an SeuZliaT Tu ara samecniero moRvaweobas daubrundnen. SeuZliaT maT msaxureba Zalauflebis, administarciuli resursis, uzarmazari piradi dacvisa da saxelmwifo aparatis gareSe?! aqvT maT moraluri da inteleqtualuri avtoriteti?! dafiqrdiT amaze, rodesac arCevanis gakeTebas SeecdebiT. partia yovelTvis oria: partia warsulis da partia momavlis, partia istebliSmentis da partia moZraobis; arCevani Tqvenzea.

90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi maxsovs Cemi niu-iorkSi pirvelad Casvlisas, sul mcire xanSi mivxvdi rom qalaqi da misi mmarTveloba arnaxul krizisSi imyofeboda, kriminalebTan brZola faqtiurad aranair Sedegs ar iZleoda, qalaqSi cxovreba Wirda. niu-iorkelebi emudarebodnen sakuTar mers _ devid dankins, rom raime RonisZieba gaetarebina. es mudara kargad gamoixata “niu-iork postis” pirvel gverdze dabeWdil gaxmaurebul statiaSi _ `Dave do something!~ _ “devid, qeni ra rame!” radganac man xalxs ganucxada, rom niu-orki iyo umarTavi da aRarafris gakeTeba ar SeiZleboda. aq me minda gavixseno meore lideri _ didi britaneTis premier-ministri iuston CerCili. warmovidginoT 1940 weli, rodesac hitleris armia akontrolebda mTel evropas, holandias, belgias, luqsemburgi elvis siswrafiT gadaiara, safrangeTi dapyrobilia. amerika ar ereva evropul brZolebSi, didi britaneTi martod martoa da am dros CerCili xels ibans brZolisagan, gamodis misi Stabbinidan “Ten dauning stritze” da acxadebs _”brZola britaneTisaTvis wagebulia, arafris gakeTeba ar SeiZleba, Cemi brali ar aris, ra vqna!” warmoidgineT ras ityoda britaneli xalxi, ras ityoda msoflio. dRes igives akeTebs SevardnaZe, rac dankinsma niu-iorkSi gaakeTa. faqtiurad arafers akeTebs, Tavis ministrebs abralebs. liderma sxvas ki ar unda gadaabralos da Tavis marTlebiT gaixangrZlivos dro, aramed Tavad unda aiRos pasuxismgebloba yvelaferze da uTxras xalxs, Tu ras gaakeTebs mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad. me mikvirs CvenTan ratom ar ibeWdeba aseTi statia _ `Sevo, qeni ra rame!~

arcerT civilizebul saxelmwifoSi pirveli piri ar aris xelisuflebis saTaveSi mTeli misi cxovreba da miTumetes iseTi lideri, romelsac gaumjobesebis nacvlad qveyana dangrevisaken miyavs. Cvens SemTxvevaSi ki ngreva faqtiurad dasrulebulia. yvelaferi, rac dasangrevi iyo daingra, aRaraferi funqcionirebs, sruli anarqia, korufcia da arakompetenturobaa. ai es aris Cveni saxelmwifoebriobis mTavari “miRwevebi”. misi tipis saxelmwifos meTaurebs, romlebsac erTi wuTiTac ar ucxovriaT xelisuflebis gareSe, qveyanac veRar warmoudgeniaT maTi prezidentobis gareSe. ariqa daviRupebiT, yvelaferi daingreva Tu prezidenti wava. ai es logikaa kubaSi, sadac 1959 wlidan fidel kastro ganagebs, zimbabveSi, sadac robert mugabim qveyana katastrofis piras miiyvana, magram xelisuflebas ver scildeba. azerbaijanSi _ alievi, saqarTveloSi _ SevardnaZe, eraySi _ sadam huseini, siriaSi _ hafes asadi, libiaSi _ muamer kadafi. damisaxeleT erTi warmatebuli qveyana mainc, sadac prezidenti mTeli misi cxovreba prezidentia. rac ar unda kargi lideri hyavdes qveyanas, ganaxleba, axali ideebi, axali sisxli aucilebelia politikuri procesis sijansaRis SesanarCuneblad. sircxvilia, rom saqarTvelo yvelaferSi afrikis yvelaze CamorCenil qveynebs emsgavsebodes.

kidev erTi gavrcelebuli umsgavsoba CvenSi _ cekva-TamaSiT, ovaciebiTa da pirze kocniT ulocaven ministrsa Tu sxvas, Tanamdebobaze daniSvnas. isinic Tavis mxriv gaxarebulebi didi pompezurobiT ifereben milocvebs. sinamdvileSi namdvili moxelisaTvis, WeSmariti profesionalisTvis saxelmwifo samsaxuri unda iyos Tavdadeba, msaxureba, uzarmazari tvirTi da pasuxismgebloba, romelmac Rameebi ar unda dagaZinos Tu saqmis gakeTeba da qveynis samsaxuri gsurs.

saWiroa gansjis sagnis Secvla. qveynis mSeneblobis, ekonomikis ganviTarebis, saqarTvelos warmatebul sazogadoebad gadaqcevis, socialuri solidarobisa da samarTlianobis miRwevis sakiTxebze saubari da mosaxleobis informireba. agreTve aqcentis gamaxvilebaa saWiro problemis gadawyvetaze da SesaZleblobebze orientirebis kulturis Camoyalibebis aucileblobaze. sazogadoeba, ojaxi, Temi eseni bunebiT konservatoruli institutebia da xSirad statusqvos Secvlas urCevniaT arsebuli tkivilis pirobebSi cxovreba da garkveuli drois Semdeg dabuJebul tkivils TiTqmis veRarc grZnoben. amocana dRes imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Cven SevZloT dRes am dabuJebis moxsna da miviwyebuli tkivilis simZafris gamovlena, raTa vaiZuloT Cveni sazogadoeba, rom Tvali gausworos Cveni qveynis tkivils. didi tkivili aiZulebs adamianebs eWvi Seitanon arsebul sazogadoebriv wesSi, es maT afiqrebs alternativis, axali wesebis Ziebaze. rodesac sazogadoebis rCeuli adamianebi miiReben cxovrebis axal wess, amas mohyveba kritikuli masisgan igive wesebis miReba da Zvelis uaryofa. Tuki kritikuli masa miiRebs axal wesebs, axal qcevebs, maSin Cven ukve saxeze gvaqvs tendencia, mas ki axali mentaluri modeli, axali paradigma moaqvs. CvenTvis axla swored axali paradigmis Seqmnaa aucilebeli Cveni sazogadoebis gasajansaReblad da ara mcire gamosworebisa da kosmetikuri cvlilebebis gziT svla. Zveli TamaSis wesis cotaTi gaumjobeseba arafers mogvcems, Cven axali TamaSi unda wamoviwyoT, TamaSi sadac sazogadoebis yvela fena monawileobs da imarjvebs.

qveynebisaTvis am mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze erovnuli dialogi, sul ufro met Rirseul adamians moizidavs da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisaken ubiZgebs, radgan am rTul sakiTxebze saubari mxolod Sesabamisi ganaTlebisa da kompetenciis mqone adamianebs xelewifebaT, es procesi dRevandeli Waobis mobinadreebs (me maTTvis ukeTesi sityva ar memeteba) medroveebsa da yvaryvareebs bunebrivad TamaSgare mdgomareobaSi datovebs, radgan maT qveynis mSeneblobis problematikaze da maTi gadaWris gzebze warmodgenac ki araa aqvT, maT mxolod im produqtis gayidva SeuZliaT, rasac boRma da talaxis srola hqvia da Tu Cven maT saqonelze muStars SevumcirebT, maSin maTi bolo gakotreba da `bazridan~ wasvlaa. Cven gvinda moRvaweni da ara politikosebi, dastaqrebi da ara eqimbaSebi, didostatni da ara xelosnebi, liderebi da ara laCrebi.

dRes opozicia erTmaneTs ecileba opoziciis tituls, mTavroba Tavadac ki asaxelebs misTvis xelsayrel opozicias, magram mTavari is ki ar aris, vin aris opozicia, mTavaria _ vin aris lideri, vis aqvs xedva 21-e saukunisa, vis aqvs moraluri da inteleqturi resursi saqarTvelos Tanamedrove sazogadoebad gadaqcevisa, vin daanaxebs xalxs “aRTqmul qveyanas” da iq misasvlel gzebs. Torem mxolod opozicioneroba TavisTavad bevrs arafers niSnavs.

2. politikosebi 

samwuxarod, SevardnaZem amdeni xnis manZilze imiTac daamaxinja Cveni sazogadoebrivi procesi, rom man faqtiurad politikuri procesis sruli monopolizacia moaxdina, romlis gamosworebasac didi dro dasWirdeba. man mospo misi sistemis opoziciis Camoyalibebis SesaZlebloba da yvela is, visac politikaSi mosvlis ambicia hqonda, es mxolod SevardnaZis TamaSis wesebis miRebiT, SevardnaZis struqturaSi gavliT da mis frTebqveS dafrTianebis pirobebSi iyo SesaZlebeli. SevardnaZe ki mis mier dafrTianebul politikosebs `gasvrisa~ da komprometirebulobis safasurad, politikur asparezze gamosvlis saSualebas aZlevda. Tu Tvals gadavavlebT dRevandel politikur speqtrs faqtiurad TiTqmis ar meguleba lideri, romelic am xarkis gacemis gareSe, damoukideblad gamosuliyo politikur asparezze. maT yvelam, misi xeldasmiTa da misi skolis damTavrebiT SeZles politikosad Camoyalibeba. es aramarto SevardnaZis, aramed afrikeli da azieli diqtatorebis saerTo instiqtia. maT ar surT sxva realuri alternativa xalxis TvalSi da yvela potenciuri konkurenti hyavdeT kompromitirebuli, raTa advili iyos TavianTi Tavis erTaderT misaReb, ualternativo “mamaD da marCenlad” warmoCineba.

Tu kargad davakvirdebiT, SevarnaZe da mis mier Seqmnili politikuri speqtri imeorebs da kosmetikuri cvlilebiT akeTebs imas, rac mTeli am wlebis manZilze ukeTebiaT da Tu es asea, ratom gvgonia, rom dRes miviRebT raime gansxvavebuls, rac aqamde migviRia? da ra migviRia am xnis manZilze? ngreva, siRatake, kriminalizacia, martooba, uimedoba, usamarTloba, gaunaTlebloba, sazogadoebis gaxleCa _ ramdeni CamovTvalo? amitom sazogadoeba aseTi politikuri speqtrisagan raime sasikeTos  ar unda elodos.

Cven xSirad gulis siRrmeSi mainc gvaqvs sasikeTo cvlilebis imedi da vambobT, _ vnaxoT ra moxdeba arCevnebis Semdeg, iqneb raime gamoswordes. me mgonia es iluziaa. rogor unda gamoswordes, an ra unda gamoswordes axali parlamentSi, rodesac iq mosaxvedrad igive partiebi, igive xalxi ibrZvis, romelic dRevandel politikur speqtrs warmoadgens. axali parlamenti dakompleqtdeba igive partiebisagan, romlebic dRes moqmedeben, oRond cotaTi gansxvavebuli proporciuli SemadgenlobiT. sxva am arCevnebSi TiTqmis ar monawileobs, arsebuli politikuri sistema gamoricxavs jansaRi Zalis monawileobas.

neba miboZeT Cemi xedva SemogTavazoT dRevandel politikur speqtrze eseni ZiriTadad arian 10-mde msxvili partia Tu gaerTianeba. maTi aqtivistebi ZiriTadad warumatebeli da xelmocaruli adamianebi arian. aseve maT rigebSia garkveuli raodenoba mdabio xulignebisa, swored es `aqtivistebi~ miuvardebian xolme erTimeores, erTni qvemodan agineben da iweven meoreze, meoreni zemodan ubruneben ginebas. xSirad maT mTavroba aqezebs da Tavadac monawileobs am umsgavsobaSi. ai aseTi `civilizebuli~ meTodebiT, partiebi da moZraobebi Cvens qveyanaSi arCeven
politikur saqmeebs. masobrivi mxardaWera am partiebs ara aqvT isini ZiriTadad `aqtivistebisa~ da maTi ojaxis wevrebis saSualebiT awyoben ama Tu im politikur aqcias. maTSi im mizezebis gamo, rac zemoT CamovTvale, ar aris is muxti, romelic sazogadoebas, xalxs quCaSi gamoiyvans.

meore ZiriTadi `gmiri~ samTavrobo, saxelisuflebo Cinosnebi da maTi wvrilfexobaa. maT SeiZleba kancelaria davarqvaT. eseni ZiriTadad Zveli komunisturi da komkavSiruli nomenklaturaa, Tumca maTTan erTad ar unda dagvaviwydes axalgazrda karierist CinovnikTa aranakleb mcirericxovani armia. am samTavrobo pirebis mTeli samuSao dRe ixarjeba ara qveynis strategiuli ganviTarebis Camoyalibebasa da aRsrulebaSi, aramed CarTulni arian fardismiRma manipulaciebSi, gauTavebel SexvedrebSi, sammag TamaSSi, opoziciuri partiebis liderebTanac, saxelisuflebo partiebTanac da msxvil finansur wreebTanac. maTTvis yvelaze mTavari principi aris xelisuflebaSi yofna, Tanamdebobebisa da privilegiebis SenarCuneba danarCeni sazogadoebis xarjze. maTTvis grZelvadiani xedva ar arsebobs, isini moswrebaze arian _ `saswrafod, dResve, axlave, xval SeiZleba gvian iyos~, ai, es aris maTi azrovnebis modeli. isini yvelafers arnaxuli siswrafiT xraven da Tu akakis sityvebs moviSveliebT, mTavari virTxa swored rom mouravia. saqarTvelos beRelsac es dRevandeli mouravi xravs ukanmouxedavad.

mesame wyeba politikurad aqtiuri fenisa aris e.w. intiligencia. es fena yvelaze Wrelia Tavisi SemadgenlobiT. aq aris CvenTvis kargad nacnobi `wiTeli intiligencia~, romlis nawilic kargad moergo axal sistemas da ganagrZobs konformizmis gziT `ZlierTa ama qveynisaTa~ msaxurs da amiT konfortuli cxovrebis SenarCunebas. aqve unda aRiniSnos sxva priviligebuli intiligenciis nawilic, romelic xSirad presiTa da televiziiT azrs gamoTqvams sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoze, miuxedavad imisa aqvT Tu ara formaluri ganaTleba da kompetencia am sferoSi da swored es cnobadoba aris wyaro maTi gavlenisa da komfortuli cxovrebisa.

meoTxe fena politikurad aqtiuri jgufisa, gaxlavT e.w. gavleniani da mdidari `biznesmenebi~, romlebic Riadac da faruladac aqtiurad misdeven sakuTar finansur interesebs, politikaSi did fuls abandeben da faqtiurad xrwnian politikur process, mzad arian nebismieri xerxebiT ar dauSvan maTTvis miuRebeli politikosis arseboba. isini politikuri da finansuri mkvlelobis saSiS wyaros warmoadgenen da aseve warmatebulad iyeneben medias, raTa e.w. `Savi piariT~ da paskvilebiT, dakveTili Jurnalistebis xeliT Cirqi moscxon da talaxi esrolon maTTvis miuRebel pirovnebasa da politikoss. rasakvirvelia, am saqmeSi Tavad politikosebi da politikuri partiebic metad `daxelovdnen~.

mexuTe moqmedi piri im dramaSi, romelsac qarTuli politika hqvia aris media. samwuxarod, ramodenime bednieri gamonaklisis garda Tavisufali media saqarTveloSi faqtiurad ar arsebobs. ZiriTadad saqme gvaqvs skandalebsa da bulvarul _ yviTel presasTan. zogs erTi Zala flobs, zogs meore, zogi visi televiziaa da zogi ki visi, ifarcxeba da iCqmaleba Tavisufali, miukerZoebeli azri. Cven, sazogadoebis ZiriTadi nawili am politikur speqtrSi da farsSi ar vfigurirebT, ar vmonawileobT. Cven iq emociuri wili ar gvaqvs, Cven xom xelCaqneulni, uimedoni vuyurebT am talaxismsrolel, boRmiTa da siZulviviT aRsavse adamianebs da sasowarkveTilni gamosavals ver vxedavT. yvelaze didi saSiSroeba aseTi zRvardaudebeli, siZulviliT aRsavse politikuri speqtris arsebobisa imaSi gamoixateba, rom igi gzas uRobavs da politikur procesSi CarTvis survils ukargavs patiosan, sikeTiTa da kompetenturobiT aRsavse adamianebs, romelTac surT da xelewifebaT kidec qveynis samsaxuri, magram ar surT daumsaxurebeli lanZRvisa da talaxis srolis samizne gaxdnen sxvadasxva rjulis arSemdgari politikosebisagan. ase rom, es znedacemuli politikuri speqtri umetesad masaviT znedacemuls, karierisa da fulisSovnis wyurviliT Sepyrobil adamianebs izidavs da mojadoebuli jaWvi korufciisa, uzneobisa, daundoblobisa permenentulad sul ufro met inerciasa da Zalas iZens. amis gamo, Cven sazogadoebas xandaxan araswori pozicia gviyalibdeba. arsebul mdgomareobaze gabrazebulni vTvliT, rom Cven am sibinZuris miRma vdgavarT, ar gvainteresebs ra xdeba iq, Cvens
saqmes vakeTebT, ojaxs vuvliT da “maT ki kiseric umtvreviaT”. magram gana aseTi gandgomisa da sakuTari izolirebis fufuneba SegviZlia mivceT Cvens Tavs? Cvens ojaxs? Cvens qveyanas? Tu Cven ar CavereviT, es politikuri speqtri da momavalSi kidev ufro uaresi, gansazRvravs Cveni sazogadoebis, Cveni qveynis, Cveni Svilebis momavals. sxvisi ar vici da me ki piradad ar vapireb Cemi Svilebis momavlis gansazRvris da qveynis saboloo dasamarebis uflebis maTTvis datovebas. rodesac saqme Cveni Svilebis momavals exeba, sazogadoebas ara aqvs ufleba siraqlemis pozaSi yofnis. galavnis Semortymasa da `bednieri kunZulis~ aSenebas veravin SeZlebs, rodesac qveyanaSi sruli ganukiTxaobaa da Zlieri da mtyuani Cagravs marTalsa da susts, sadac korumpirebuli moxele da kriminali patiosan adamians normaluri cxovrebis saSualebas ar aZlevs, sadac patiosan da inovator anterpreniors saxelmwifo suls arTmevs, sadac WeSmariti eqimi Seuracxyofilia, radgan avadmyofs mkurnalobis saSualeba ara aqvs, sadac axalgazrda profesionali samsaxurs ver Soulobs, sadac maswavlebeli ar fasobs da SimSilobs, sadac axal Taobas Tavisi ocnebebis miRwevis imedi aRar aqvs, sadac moxucebuls arsebobis SesaZleblobac ki warTmeuli aqvs. sazogadoebisgan amis gulxeldakrefili da mayureblis poziciidan yureba ar aris gamarTlebuli.

maS ra gavakeToT, ra aris saWiro mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad? Cemi azriT am sakiTxebis aqtualizebaa saWiro, mTavaria am sakiTxebze erovnuli dialogis gamarTva, sazogadoebis yuradRebis swored am sakiTxebze mimarTva da ugulvebelyofa skandaluri, boRmiTa da urTierTbraldebebiT aRsavse “diskusiebisa”, romliTac ase uniWod gvkvebavs saqarTvelos dRevandeli politikuri speqtri. unda visaubroT am sakiTxebze, qveynis aRmSeneblobis sakiTxebze. diskusiaSi CaerTvebian gamocdili, kompetenturi pirovnebebi. Cvens sazogadoebas maswavlebeli unda, romelic brZenia, gamocdilia, bevri unaxavs. ase gaizrdeba Cveni kriteriumebi da standartebi, Torem arsebuli liderebi xels aqnevineben realur liderebs da procesSi mxolod uRirsi ebmeba. sxvamxriv, qveyana mojadoebuli jaWvidan gamosvlas ver moaxerxebs.

zogi ambobs, rom Zalian Znelia raimes Secvla _ policia imaTia, fuli, resursebi, gayalbeba, xalxi gaucxoebulia da a.S. marTalia, mec veTanxmebi maT, magram gana didi saqme, gana qveynis Secvla, gana msaxureba iyo odesme ioli? gana gandisTvis xalxis fexze dayeneba da britanuli imperiis daZleva iyo advili? gana prezident kenedisaTvis imis Tqma da Semdeg asruleba, rom am dekadaSi adamians mTvareze gauSvebda iyo advili? gana patriarqi ambrosisaTvis advili iyo eTqva _ `Cemi suli RmerTs ekuTvnis, guli Cems qveyanas da xorci ki TqvenTvis momigdia~-o? gana simarTlisaTvis, TavisuflebisaTvis, msaxurebisaTvis brZola odesme iyo an momavalSi iqneba advili? ara Zmebo es Zalian Znelia, magram swored amaSi aris Cveni daniSnuleba, xelis Caqneva advilia, magram ras vetyviT Cvens winaprebs, ras vetyveiT Cvens Svilebs. hoda maS visac sjera, rom usamarTlobaa 99% SimSilobdes da 1%-ma aRar icodes rogor ifuqsavatos, ra miiTvisos, ra SeiZinos, visac sjera rom Cveni qveyana daiRala kriminaluri samyarosagan, visac sjera, rom Cveni Svilebi ukeTesi ganaTlebisa da momavlis Rirsni arian, visac sjera, rom Cveni qveyana unda iqces SesaZleblobebis sazogadoebad, socialuri samarTlianobis sazogadoebad, visac sjera, rom moyvasi unda zrunavdes moyvasze, visac unda, rom qveyana katastrofisagan gadarCes, visac unda ganuyofeli, Semwynarebluri, ganaTlebuli, keTilSobili saqarTvelo, sadac sicocxle Cqefs da TviToeuli adamiani fasobs, maSin TiToeuli adamiani unda SeiaraRdes socialuri solidarobis droSiT, erTad dadgnen da SeebrZolon usamarTlobasa da gaWirvebas. 

3. lideris funqcia 

politika rogorc wesi xSirad izidavs zomaze metad, gadaWarbebuli ambiciebis mqone ego-centrul adamianebs. am adamianTa didi nawilis simSvidisa da kmayofilebis wyaroa garesamyaros mier maTi cnoba, aRiareba da ara sakuTar Sinagan maradiul RirebulebebTan harmoniaSi yofna. amitom maTTvis reitings, popularobas umTavresi mniSvneloba aqvs. maTTvis bednierebac da sakuTari Rirsebis grZnobac, swored popularobisa da reitingis pirdapairproporciulia da uWirT iseTi nabijebis gadagma, romelic im wuTas arapopularuli da cudia reitingisTvis. warmatebuli lideri is ki ar aris, romelic aucileblad Cvens mier mowonebuli mimarTulebiT wagviyvans, aramed is vinc mimzidveli momavlis xedvis matarebelia, dagvanaxebs iseTi momavlis suraTs, romelic masze da mis pirad interessze didia. WeSmariti politikosi yvela Cvenganis emociuri wilis matarebelia, romelic STagvagonebs, aRgvafrTovanebs da Cvens arsebobas ufro did mizansa da daniSnulebas miscems. wuTier sazogadoebriv azrs gamodevneba, qveynisa da politikuri procesebis marTva mxolod e.w. `fokus jgufebiTa~ da `piarmaqinaciebiT~, liders akargvinebs yismaTsa da alRos Tamami gadawyvetilebisaTvis da maCanCalasaviT mihyveba movlenebsa da sazogadoebriv azrs, imis magivrad rom Tavad qmnides movlenebsa da tendenciebs, ayalibebdes da win uZRvebodes sazogadoebrivi azris formirebas. ubralod, mkafiod, laRad Camoyalibebuli pozicia, mxolod WeSmarit moRvawes, liders SeuZlia da ara reitings gamokidebul politikoss. aseTebs dasavleTSi didostat liderebs eZaxian da isini sazogadoebaSi, xalxSi, TiToeul CvenTaganSi warmoaCenen da waaxaliseben saukeTeso Tvisebebs, qveynisa da sikeTis samsaxurisaTvis aRgvafrTovaneben. maT aqvT unari dainaxon is rac SeuiaraRebeli TvaliT ar Cans, is rac im kuTxis miRmaa, dafarulia, ai esaa lideri. maT aqvT moraluri avtoriteti imisa, rom gaataron erTi SexedviT arapopularuli politika da miiRon sazogadoebrivi azrisagan gansxvavebuli gadawyvetileba (ra sakvirvelia es droebiTi unda iyos, rameTu arcerT liders ar Seswevs unari mudmivad sazogadoebrivi azris winaaRmdeg svlis _ ndobis maragi SezRudulia). maT aqvT unari am gadawyvetilebebis lakonuri artikulirebisa da sazogadoebisadmi maTi sistematurad axsnisa. magram sanam lideri aseT moralur simaRles SeiZens, man Tavisi saqmianobiT unda daamtkicos, rom ara aqvs kerZo interesi, konkretuli politikis gatarebisagan ar moelis pirad sargebels, rom igi ar eZebs Tanamdebobas, prestiJsa da SeRavaTebs, rom misi mTavari motivacia gaxlavT msaxureba da mxolod msaxureba. mxolod aseT liders, romelic amave dros emociuri inteleqtiT aris aRWurvili, SeuZlia Cveni dajereba da reitingis ugulvebelyofa. WeSmariti lideri izomeba ara marto imiT Tu ramdeni mimdevari hyavs, aramed imiT Tu ramdeni lideri gazarda da warmoaCina. swored es aris sxvaoba popularobasa da politikur reitingze orientirebul politikossa da msaxurebaze da RirebulebaTa sistemaze orientirebul moRvawes Soris.

ra suraTia am mxriv saqarTveloSi? ramdenad warmatebulni arian Cveni liderebi, Tuki maT am sazomiT SevafasebT? Znelad warmosadgenia saqarTveloSi partia Tu moZraoba maTi liderebis gareSe, ara mgonia romelime partia daSlas da daqucmacebas gadaurCes maTi lideris wasvlis Semdeg. warmogidgeniaT saxelisuflebo moZraobis erTianoba SevardnaZis gareSe, warmogindgeniaT `aRorZineba~ abaSiZis gareSe? es rac Seexeba saxelisuflebo partiebs, exlan gadavxedoT opozicionerebs da vaRiaroT _ iarsebebs nacionaluri moZraoba saakaSvilis gareSe? leiboristebze xom laparakic ki aRar iqneba naTelaSvilis gareSe, ra mouvaT demokratebs Jvanias gareSe da a.S.? am liderTa mTavari sazrunavi mxolod mimdevarTa ricxvis gazrdaa, imis magivrad rom axali liderebi warmoeCinon da gazardon. maT ver SesZles CamoeyalibebinaT iseTi ZiriTadi principebisa da faseulobebis erToblioba, romelic gaamarTlebda organizaciis arsebobas, romlis garSemoc gaizrdeboda organizacia, efeqturi gaxdeboda da mis saqmianobas institucionalizirebuli saxe miecemoda. amis nacvlad ki dRes infantiluri mdgomareoba, pirovnebebis irgvliv gaerTianeba, erTi partiidan meoreSi gadaxtoma da iaffasiani intrigebia partiebis yoveldRiuri sazrunavi.

vin aris dRevandeli politikuri cxovrebis moqmedi gmiri? am kiTxvaze aucilebelia dafiqreba, raTa davinaxoT rom Cveni sazogadoebis daaxloebiT 75% aris xelCaqneuli, pasiuri, igi ar monawileobs politikur farsSi, romelsac dRevandeli pseqtri sTavazobs. mosaxleobis 75% aravis ar aZlevs xmas, rameTu maT interess am farsis moqmedni gmirni ar gamoxataven.

Cven ar gvWirdeba vinmes nebarTva zemodan. isini amis `mandats~ ar mogvcemen. zogi cvlilebasa da progres elis “zemodan”. ra iluziaa!? rodesme ginaxavT, rom revolucia daewyo monarqs? odesme ginaxavT elizabet II bukingemis sasaxlis win plakatiT: `Cven gvinda respublika~? cvlileba iwyeba qvemodan magaliTad ilia WavWavaZe, mahaTma gandi, mandela, martin luTer kingi, haveli _ maT Secvales msoflio istoria, maTi erTaderTi iaraRi iyo zneobrivi da inteleqtualuri mTlianoba da ara politikuri Zalaufleba.

Cven migvaCnia, rom Tuki partias lideris mantiis Cacma surs, man upirvelesyovlisa qarTuli saxelmwifos mSeneblobis sakiTxTa irgvliv dialogis wamomwyebis tradicia unda daamkvidros. dRes Cven viwyebT swored am dialogs Cvens amomrCevlebTan da mTlianad mosaxleobasTan. Cven gvinda warmogidginoT saqarTvelos ekonomikuri da politikuri mSeneblobis Cveneuli filosofia. filosofia, romelic safuZvlad daedeba axali mTavrobis mier Seqmnil dargobriv koncefciebs.  

4. ekonomikuri disciplinis SesaZleblobebi da SezRudvebi

 ekonomikuri ganviTarebis politika, iseve, rogorc bevri ram am qveynad, modas eqvemdebareba. swavlul ekonomistTa Soris ar aris Tanxmoba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis erT raime konkretul modelze. ama Tu im modelis sargeblianoba specifikur situaciazea damokidebuli. ekonomikur disciplinaSi yvela mniSvnelovan problemaze pasuxi aseTia: `gaaCnia ra SemTxvevaSi~ (Rimilis biWebisa ar iyos _ erT tanks ufro meti Zala aqvs Tu orso, _ ekiTxeba boloka beTxovenas da beTxovena pasuxobs _ gaaCnia ra SemTxvevaSio; boloka ver xvdeba da brazdeba). Tu ufro formalur termins vixmarT, maSin yvela ekonomikur models Tan axlavs ganmarteba _ ceteris paribus anu `yvela sxva Tanabar pirobebSi~. E

ekonomistebs yovelTvis uxdebaT operireba mravali cvladis pirobebSi da iZulebulni arian xSirad daeyrdnon gamartivebul warmodgenebs. magaliTad, ekonomistebi warmoidgenen, rom adamianebi (yvelgan, miuxedavad maTi socialuri pirobebisa), mcired gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan. isini ganixilaven ekonomikas, rogorc universalur mecnierebas adamianuri qcevis Sesaxeb. maTi meTodebi da warmodgenebi SeiZleba miesadagebodes Zvel saberZneTsac da Tanamedrove postindustriul amerikul sazogadoebasac. isini uSveben, rom adamianebi yovelTvis racionalurad moqmedi, mxolod piradi sargeblis maqsimizaciisaken orientirebuli pirebi arian. Cemi azriT ki, adamiani da mTlianad sazogadoeba imdenad rTuli fenomenia, rom Zalzed xSirad araracionalurad moqmedeben da maTi qcevis winaswari axsna metad rTulia. aqedan gamomdinare, ekonomikuri Teoriisa da misi meTodologiis sargeblianoba qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis misaRebi modelis SesamuSaveblad, aris SezRuduli da es mTel Cvens sazodgadoebas kargad unda
esmodes. E

ekonomikuri analizi metad sasargebloa manam, sanam igi gardauvlad Seejaxeba socialur, kulturul, politikur da fsiqologiur faqtorebs, romlis axsnac mas ukve aRar SeuZlia.

is moZvelebuli koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmadac bazari TviTregulirebadi, harmoniulad funqcionirebadi meqanizmia, odnav gadaWarbebulia. Tavisufali bazari arsebuli resursebis optimalur ganawilebas, mxolod sruli informaciisa da srulyofili konkurenciisa da Sejibris pirobebSi axdens, rac praqtikulad Zneli misaRwevia. amitom, rodesac sazogadoeba fiqrobs qveynis ekonomikuri ganiTarebis modelze, srulad unda gaiTvaliswinos ekonomikuri meTodebis gamoyenebis SezRuduloba. aseve ararealisturia molodini imisa, rom erovnuli ganviTarebisaTvis Zalisxmeva, SeiZleba erTi romelime `kargi ekonomikuri qcevis~ modelze iyos orientirebuli. istoriis gakveTili gvaswavlis, rom sabolood yvela warmatebuli qveyana ayalibebs kapitalizmis Tavis, erovnul nairsaxeobas. makroekonomikuri stabiluroba, investiciebis maRali done da sxva ekonomikuri kategoriebi saerTo da misaRebia yvela qveynisaTvis, xolo maT miRma arsebuli detalebi ki gansxvavebulia. iseve, rogorc amerikam, germaniam, iaponam, skandinaviis qveynebma Camoayalibes warmatebuli kapitalizmis sakuTari gansxvavebuli modelebi, aseve saqarTvelom unda SeZlos sakuTari erovnuli nairsaxeobis kapitalizmis Seqmna, Tu is apirebs SeuerTdes Tanamedrove qveynebis ricxvs. aq mTavaria mTavrobam ekonomikuri disciplina gonebis aparatad da azrovnebis iaraRad aqcios.

imTaviTve unda aRiniSnos is fundamenturi sinamdvile, rac Cven yvela sxva danarCeni Sexedulebebisagan gangvasxvavebs. es gaxlavT is, rom qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTareba Tavis TavSi moicavs gacilebiT mets, vidre es teqnikur _ ekonomikuri problemis gadawyvetaa, igi ZiriTadad socialuri, fsiqologiuri, kulturuli da politikuri problemaa. faqtobrivad Tanamedrove ekonomika aris mecniereba racionaluri arCevanisa, anu gadawyvetilebebisa resursebis ukmarisobis da SezRudulobis pirobebSi. aqedan gamomdinare, nebismier gadawyvetilebas, raoden sargeblianic ar unda iyos igi, aqvs Tavisi fasi, romelsac ekonomistebi uwodeben `gamouyenebel SesaZleblobaTa Rirebulebas~. resursebis SezRudulobis pirobebSi erTi mimarTulebiT gadadgmuli nabiji avtomaturad gulisxmobs sxva alternatiuli nabijis, anu SesaZleblobis uaryofas, romelsac SesaZloa igive an ufro didi Rirebuleba mohqondes. aseT pirobebSi kritikuli mniSvneloba eniWeba mTavrobis unars, saxelmwifoebrivi mSeneblobis prioritetebis Camoyalibebisa da ganuwyveti artikulirebisa.  

5. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dRemde arsebul modelTa Sefaseba. 

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis politika garkveulwilad modasaviT icvleba. swavlul ekonomistTa Soris ar arsebobs konsensusi imis Taobaze, Tu ra unda gakeTdes. 50-60-ian wlebSi, e.w. importis Canacvlebis modelis popularobisas, ekonomistebi gadaWarbebuli optimizmiT Sexvdnen mTavrobis ekonomikaSi Carevis perspeqtivas. dRes ki, miuxedavad imisa rom Ria ekonomika da neoklasikuri modeli normad iqca, mainc gadaWarbebulia martooden Ria bazrisadmi rwmena.Ees meryeoba, erTi ukiduresobidan meorisaken, zrdis risks imisa, rom SesaZloa modis morigi cvlileba.

TviT saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi Seiqmna imisaTvis, rom daecva da emarTa fiqsirebuli savaluto kursis sistema, romelic dRes ekonomikurad gaumarTlebel da praqtikulad ganuxorcielebel sistemadaa miCneuli. Tavis mxriv, msoflio bankic wlebis manZilze iTvleboda did advokatad mTavrobis mier marTvadi industriuli ganviTarebisa. isini Riad qadagebdnen proteqcionistul politikaze, samrewvelo produqciis importis SezRudvasa da sakuTari industriis ganviTarebis sikeTeze. axla ki konsensusi saerTaSoriso organizaciebSi (msoflio banki, ssf.) sapirispiro politikas iTxovs: mcuravi gacvliTi kursi, Tavisufali bazris mier gansazRvruli ekonomikuri ganviTareba, Tavisufali vaWroba.

amasTan erTad, msoflios wamyvani ekonomistebi rwmundebian imaSi, rom ekonomikuri ganviTareba metad rTuli procesia da igi moiTxovs gacilebiT mets, vidre vaWrobis liberalizacia da makroekonomikuri regulirebaa. saerTaSoriso organizaciebidan dRemde mowodebuli rekomendaciebi realurad scildeba imas, risi dasabuTebac SesaZlebelia Teoriuli Tu empiriuli monacemebiT. ekonomikurma mecnierebam gacilebiT naklebi icis `swor ekonomikur politikaze~, vidre amas Cven vacnobierebT. aman ekonomistebi ufro mokrZalebuli unda gaxados qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis detaluri struqturuli programis SemuSavebisas. Cven unda ganvTavisuflTdeT “ekonomikuri adamianis” (`Homo economicus”) SezRuduli mentaluri modelisagan. Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT ekonomikis dargSi nobelis premiis laureatis daglas norfis azrs, neoklasikuri Teoria ar aris misaRebi iaraRi da xelsawyo ekonomikuri gavniTarebis swori politikis Sesaqmnelad. neoklasikuri Teoria warmatebulia maSin, rodesac laparakia bazris funqcionirebaze da ara imaze Tu, rogor unda moxdes bazris Seqmna da ganviTareba. isini bolomde ar uRrmavdebian ekonomikuri ganviTarebis problematikas. bazari ar unda warmovidginoT rogorc bunebrivad arsebuli fenomeni. kargad funqcionirebadi sabazro sistema iqmneba mxolod kompetenturi saxelmwifos mier.

dRes mimdinareobs brZola or ideas Soris. pirveli, romelic mxars uWers saxelmwifos ukiduresad minimalur rols sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi. meoreni ki qadageben saxelmwifos mniSvnelovan, Tumc ki SezRudul rols qveynis ekonomikis marTvaSi, “bazris xelmocarulobisa” (market failure) da SezRudulobis koreqtirebaSi da socialuri samarTlianobis uzrunvelyofaSi. Cven viziarebT swored am ukanasknel Sexedulebas, romelic aRiarebs bazris centralur rols ekonomikur warmatebaSi, magram vacnobierebT im faqtsac rom bazari damoukideblad ver wyvets yvela problemas da efeqturi saxelmwifo yovelTvis iqneba bazris mniSvnelovani partniori.

am fonze, me minda gavemijno neoklasikuri modelis irgvliv dRemde gabatonebul konsesuss da warmogidginoT axali endogenuri (Endogenous) zrdis Teoria. maSin, rodesac neoklasikuri modeli agebulia warmoebis mxolod or faqtorze _ samuSao Zalasa da kapitalze da Tvlis teqnologias, anu codnas, eqsogenur anu gare faqtorad da teqnologiur progres moiazrebs, rogorc SemTxveviT mecnierul da teqnologiur aRmoCenad, esAaxali Teoria teqnologiur progressa da winsvlas codnis sferoSi ganixilavs, rogorc endogenur faqtors ekonomikuri zrdis modelSi. teqnologiuri winsvla ganixileba, rogorc endogenuri movlena, radganac teqnologiuri inovaciebi aris mizezi mizanmimarTuli investiciebisa, romlebsac anxorcieleben `anterprenionebi~ da individualuri firmebi. ase rom, axali zrdis Teoria warmoebis, samuSao Zalisa da kapitalis gverdiT, teqnologiur da `know how~-s Semadgenel da gansxvavebul faqtorad Tvlis codnas.

axali zrdis Teoria mniSvnelovania imiT, rom igi gulisxmobs saxelmwifo politikis kritikul rols qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saqmeSi. dRevandel pirobebSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs prioritetTa erToblobas, romelic uzrunvelyofs qveynis mier im SesaZleblobaTa maqsimalurad gamoyenebas, rasac globalizacia iZleva, raTa sazogadoebam isargeblos globalur ekonomikur procesebSi integrirebiT da amave dros Seamciros is gardauvali tkivili, rac gamowveulia swrafi ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri cvlilebiT. 

6. ekonomikuri reformebis erTianoba 

ekonomikuri reforma mTlianad aris damokidebuli ekonomikuri da politikuri safuZvlebis “swor” nazavze. arc saxelmwifos mxridan zedmetad Careva da arc sruli Caurevloba warmoadgens ekonomikuri ganviTarebis aucilebel pirobasa da warmatebul politikas. ekonomikuri ganviTareba ar aris mxolod viwro teqnikur-ekonomikuri problema, aramed ZiriTadad socialur-politikuri problemaa. amitomac, mxolod ekonomikuri safuZvlebis swori danergva ar aris sakmarisi ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis. kargad funqcionirebadi saxelmwifo aris aucilebeli piroba, ris gareSec ekonomikuri safuZvlebi saerTod ar iarsebebda. maRali danazogebis done, kvalificiuri samuSao Zala, didi investiciebi ganaTlebis sferoSi, jandacvaSi waxalisebuli iyo mxolod saxelmwifos mier da igi ar Seqmnila mxolod bazris uxilavi xelis mier.

bazari ar unda warmovidginoT rogorc bunebrivad arsebuli fenomeni. kargad funqcionirebadi sabazro sistema iqmneba saxelmwifos mier, sabazro sistemis Sesaqmnelad ki kompetenturi saxelmwifo Semdegi elementebisagan Semdgar sistemas ayalibebs:

  1. institucionaluri reforma, romelic moicavs sasamarTlo da maregulirebeli organoebis refoformas, socialuri usafrTxoebis bades; samTavrobo organoebis reformas, rac Tavis mxriv ZiriTadad moicavs gadasaxadebis administracias, biujetisa da saxelmwifo xarjebis kontrols da aseve monetaruli disciplinis damkvidrebas; liberalur sagadasaxado kodeqs;
  2. makroekonomikuri stabilizacia, rac gulisxmobs fiskalur da sakredito politikaSi disciplinis damyarebas, valutis konvertirebadobis miRwevas;
  3. fasebis reforma, rac iTvaliswinebs fasebze saxelmwifo kontrolis moxsnas da vaWrobis liberalizacias;
  4. sawarmoebis privatizacia da maTi restruqturizacia. es moicavs kerZo seqtoris ganviTarebas, sakuTrebis kanonis damkvidrebasa da dacvas, kontraqtis xelSeuxeblobas, biznessaqmianobis gaadvilebasa da xelSewyobas.

samwuxarod, rogorc wesi erTi sistemis rRvevisa da axlis Camoyalibebisas, axali realoba yovelTvis win uswrebs formaluri institucionaluri bazis Seqmnas, ris gareSec efeqturi da stabiluri sabazro sistemis ganviTareba SeuZlebelia. rodesac institutebze vlaparakobT Cven
vgulisxmobT sazogadoebis mier xelovnurad Seqmnil CarCoebs. isini SeiZleba iyos formaluri CarCoebi (wesebi, kanonebi, konstitucia) da araformaluri CarCoebi (qcevis normebi, adaTebi, tradiciebi, kulturuli Cvevebi). aqve Cven vgulisxmobT wesebisa da normebis aRsrulebis meqanizmebsac. Tumca komunizmis rRveviT da damoukideblobis mopovebiT saqarTveloSi sabWoTa ekonomikis formaluri institucionaluri baza daingra, Cvenda samwuxarod araformaluri CarCoebi da SezRudvebi kvlav srulad moqmdeben. Zveli institutebis ngrevam da mis nacvlad axali kapitalisturi araformaluri CarCoebisa da SezRudvebis ararsebobam ganapiroba anarqia. amitom aris rom, formaluri institucionaluri CarCoebisa da SezRudvebis swrafi Seqmna, misi aRsrulebis meqanizmTan erTad sacicocxlo mniSvnelobas iZens. es procesi umniSvnelovanesia imitomac, rom aseTi qaosis pirobebSi racionaluri piradi interesi adamianebs ubiZgebs kriminalisa da korufciisaken. kapitalizmi institucionaluri CarCoebisa da SezRudvebis aRsrulebisa da iZulebis meqanizmis gareSe aris avtomatisa da banditizmis, kriminalisa da mafiis kapitalizmi. es gamoiara, ra Tqmaunda ufro Serbilebulad 1680-ian wlebSi inglisma, 1850-ian wlebSi germaniam, mogvianebiT amerikam, 90-ian wlebSi ruseTma, saqarTvelom, ukrainam da yofilma sabWoTa respublikebma. yofili sabWoelebis cudi Cvevebi da mentaluri mdgomareoba Zalian neli tempiT icvleba, sabWoTa sistemam Seqmna pasiuri da sxvis nebaze damokidebuli adamianebi. Cveni sazogadoeba gaiJRinTa ormagi standartebiT mcxovrebi, mxolod pirad sargebels gamodevnebuli adamianebiT, romelic pirad nacnobobasa da sakuTar saqcielze pasuxismgeblobis aRebisagan Tavis aridebas efuZneba. poskomunisturi qveynebis gamocdileba gvaswavlis, rom efeqturi sabazro sistemis Seqmnis wina pirobaa, kompetenturi saxelmwifo, romelsac gaaCnia Sesabamisi Zalaufleba bazris wesebis Camoyalibebisa da misi aRsrulebisa. zogierTma qveyanam mag.: poloneTma, CexeTma, estoneTma, ungreTma warmatebiT SeZles sabazro sistemis Camoyalibeba, romelic personalur wesebs ki ara, aramed miukerZoebel arapersonalur wesebs efuZneba. Cvenma qveyanam, am 11 wlis manZilze ver SeZlo Camoeyalibebina samoqalaqo sazogadoeba da kultura, romelic daefuZneboda ndobasa da saqzogadoebrivi pasuxismgeblobis maRal xarisxs. swored aseTi kulturaa aucilebeli sabazro sistemaze damyarebuli ekonomikis warmatebisaTvis. kapitalizmi ver ganviTardeba usamarTlobisa da ukanonobis fonze.
 

7. axali globaluri garemo ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis

msoflio ekonomika da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integraciis gavlena uswrafesi tempiT izrdeba. ekonomikuri integracia nawilobriv ganpirobebulia swrafi teqnologiuri cvlilebebiT, romlebmac radikalurad Seamcires transportirebisa da komunikaciis xarjebi. magram aseve ekonomikuri integraciis daCqarebis saqmeSi mniSvnelovani roli miuZRvis sagareo vaWrobasa da kapitalis mimoqcevaze SezRudvebis Semcirebasac. aseT pirobebSi saqarTvelos aqvs mxolod erTi arCevani _ ecados globalizaciis process moergos, erTis mxriv gamoiyenos is potenciali da sargebeli, rac mac moaqvs da meores mxriv, marTos da minimumamde daiyvanos is potenciuri saSiSroeba, rac globalizacias gardauvlad Tan mohyveba.

globalizaciis saSiSroebaa erovnuli kulturis nivelireba, kontr-kulturis gavrceleba, arastabiluroba, mosalodneli ekonomikuri Sokebi, faseulobebis aRreva. am saSiSroebisagan Tavis dasacavad aucilebelia sazogadoebam da misi politikis Semqmnelebma gaacnobieron yvela zemoT CamoTvlili saSiSroeba da gansjis sagnad aqcion. aucilebelia globalizaciis sasargeblo mxaris, romelic Cemi azriT sWarbobs mis negatiur mxares, aqtiuri gamoyeneba. misi sasargeblo mxarea gazrdili sagareo vaWroba, informaciis moZraobis maRali tempi, axali ideebis, teqnologiebis, mowyobilobebisa da “nou haus” Tavisufali gadaadgileba, saqarTvelos msoflio ekonomikasa da politikasTan integrirebis SesaZlebloba. fizikuri da informaciuli barierebis ngrevisa da globalizaciis sayovelTaobis pirobebSi, saqarTvelo da nebismieri sxva qveyana, Tavis erovnul Taviseburebebs, mis kulturas da gamorCeulobas ver SeinarCunebs, Tu igi mxolod da mxolod globalizaciis mier Seqmnili sakacobrio simdidris pasiur momxmarebelad iqca. qarTuli saxelmwifos gadarCenis da Cveni erovnuli kulturis gamdidrebis erTaderTi gzaa Tavad gavxdeT mSenebelni, Semqmnelni, inovatorni ekonomikis, kulturis, sportis, mecnierebisa da xelovnebis sferoSi. saqarTvelo unda gaxdes Semqmneli sakacobrio mniSvnelobis produqtis, inovaciis, gamogonebis, romelTac moTxovna eqnebaT saerTaSoriso bazrebze. Cven unda viqceT aRmSeneblebad da ara mxolod momxmareblebad. amis gareSe Cven ver viarsebebT rogorc qarTuli saxelmwifo da qarTuli sazogadoeba. Cvens ers amis potenciali aqvs. saWiroa mxolod misi geniis marwuxebidan ganTavisufleba, ganaTlebis, swavlebis, informaciis sayovelTaobis mTavar prioritetad qceva, saxelmwifo korufciisa da kriminalizaciis damarcxeba rac SeiZleba swrafad. es mxolod mTeli sazogadoebis sruli potencialisa da resursebis mobilizaciis pirobebSia SesaZlebebli.

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT ki mTavari amocana qveynis momavali politikis SemqmnelTaTvis iqneba is, Tu rogor unda SeZlos im SesaZleblobaTa gamoyeneba, rasac globalizacia iZleva da rom xalxi, da gansakuTrebiT ki gaWirvebuli adamianebi, rogor isargebleben qveynis globalizirebul msoflio ekonomikasTan integraciiT, da amave dros daculni iqnebian im gardauvali xarjisa da saSiSroebisagan, rasac swrafi ekonomikuri, socialuri da politikuri cvlilebebi iwveven.

politikis SemqmnelTaTvis, msoflio bazrisadmi “Ria karis” ekonomikuri politikis warmarTvis cduneba efuZneba martiv mosazrebas: saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia xels Seuwyobs qveynis ekonomikis qmediTunarianobas, rodesac qveyana Seamcirebs satarifo da arasatarifo bariers sagareo vaWrobaSi da kars gauRebs saerTaSoriso kapitalis Semodinebas. molodinia imisa, rom es gamoiwvevs ekonomikis zrdas da es ki Tavis mxriv, Seamcirebs siRaribes da gaaumjobesebs mosaxleobis umravlesobis cxovrebis dones. magram problema am logikisa imaSi mdgomareobs, rom ar arsebobs damajerebeli dasabuTeba imisa, rom Ria karis politika, sagareo vaWrobisadmi dabali barierebisa da kapitalis Tavisufali Semodinebis Seqmna, sistematurad aRwevs zemoT aRniSnul Sedegs. praqtikulad kavSiri Ria ekonomikuri politikis warmoebasa da ekonomikur zrdas Soris aris Zalze susti da warmatebis miRweva SesaZlebelia mxolod mTeli rigi damatebiTi RonisZiebebis da institucionaluri bazis SeqmniT. sargeblianoba Ria ekonomikuri politikisa, ramdenad paradoqsuladac ar unda JRerdes, devs importis mxares. mowinave teqnologiis, mowyobilobis, investiciebis, inovatoruli ideebisa da naxevarfabrikatebis importireba, gamoiwvevs qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis mniSvnelovan biZgs. magram es aris potenciuri sargebeli, romlis realizeba SesaZlebelia mxolod damatebiTi Sida politikisa da Sesabamisi institutebis Seqmnis pirobebSi. sxva mxriv ki, saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integraciis (ris momxrec mec Tavad gaxlavarT) zogierTi momxris mtkicebuleba odnav gadaWarbebulia.

aseTi axali mWidro ekonomikuri integrirebis garemoSi, sul ufro Zneli xdeba mTavrobis mier damoukidebeli fiskaluri, monetaruli, savaWro da industriuli politikis gatareba. saerTaSoriso kapitalebis bazari elviseburad `dasjis~ im qveynebs, romelTa makroekonomikuri politika ekonomikuri kanonebis winaaRmdeg iqneba mimarTuli. gansakuTrebiT didi roli, romelic samwuxarod Tu sabednierod msoflio bankma da savaluto fondma SeiZina saqarTveloSi, arTulebs saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier iseTi damoukidebeli ekonomikuri strategiis ganxorcielebas, romelic gansxvavdeba savaluto fondis orTodoqsaluri midgomebisagan.

msoflio savaWro organizaciis wevroba, urugvais raundze miRweuli axali SeTanxmebebi, damatebiTi SemzRudveli faqtori gaxdeba saqarTvelos axali mTavrobisaTvis, damoukidebeli savaWro da industriuli politikis Camoyalibebisa da aRsrulebisa procesSi. vidre avtomaturad gadmoviRebdeT e.w. `vaSingtonis konsensusze~ dafuZnebul neoliberalur Ria ekonomikur models, Cven unda gavacnobieroT risi gakeTeba SeuZlia saerTaSoriso ekonomikas erovnuli ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis da risi gakeTeba ar SeuZlia. Cven damatebiT unda vizrunoT erovnul ekonomikur politikasa da aucilebel institucionalur bazaze, romelic aucilebelia im uaryofiTi gavlenis nawilobrivi neitralizebisaTvis, rac gardauvlad mosdevs saerTaSoriso ekonomikur integracias. amis gareSe Ria msoflio ekonomikas aranairi fasi ar eqneba erovnuli ekonomikis formirebis procesSi. Cven unda viswavloT, Tu rogor unda vimuSaoT Ria ekonomikis pirobebSi. investiciebisa da naxevarfabrikatebis importireba, romlebic ar moiZebneba adgilze, teqnologiebisa da ideebis transferi, ucxouri danazogebisadmi xelmisawvdomoba aris saqarTvelos ekonomikuri zrdis aucilebeli piroba. es aris is sargebeli, romelic saerTaSoriso ekonomikurma integraciam SeiZleba moutanos Cvens qveyanas.

meore msoflio omis Semdeg, mniSvnelovan ekonomikur warmatebebs miaRwies mxolod im qveynebma, romlebmac SesZles Sida investiciebis strategiis formulireba, ramac sawyisi biZgi misca qveynis ekonomikur zrdas da agreTve Seqmnes, Sesabamisi institutebis (wesebi, kanonebi, normebi, organizaciebi) qseli sagareo SokebTan warmatebuli brZolisaTvis. xolo is qveynebi, romlebic daeyrdnen mxolod Ria ekonomikas, sagareo vaWrobaze barierebis Semcirebas da kapitalis Tavisufal nakadebs, xelSesaxeb warmatebas ver miaRwies. amitom momavalma qarTvelma politikis Semqmnelebma koncentrireba unda moaxdinon ekonomikuri zrdis fundamentalur safuZvlebze _ Sida investiciebi, makroekonomikuri stabiluroba, adamianuri kapitali, qveynisa efeqturi mmarTveloba da ar aqcion saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia dominantad da panacead qveynis
ekonomikuri ganviTarebaze msjelobisas. axali qarTuli saxelmwifos meTaurebma unda gaiTvaliswinon rom Ria ekonomika TavisTavad ar aris ekonomikis grZelvadiani zrdis upirobo faqtori. ekonomikuri zrdis mTavari faqtorebia fizikuri da adamianuri resursebis akumulireba da teqnologiuri ganviTareba da raRa Tqma unda saerTo produqtiulobis donis amaRleba. Tu vinmes surs qveynis ekonomikuri zrda gamoxatos maTematikuri formulis saxiT, maSin formula miiRebs aseT saxes: “ekonomikuri zrda udris, qveyanaSi arsebul yvela saxis resursebs (fizikuri, materialuri, adamianuri, institucionaluri da sxv.) damatebuli produqtiuloba, anu Sromis nayofiereba.”

samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis `vefxvebis~ swrafi ekonomikuri zrda eqsportze orientaciis da mizanmimarTuli Sida investiciebis strategiis Sedegia, ramac gazarda kerZo kapitalze ukugeba da gaacxovela anterprenioruli suliskveTeba qveyanaSi. Sida da sagareo saxsrebi mobilizebul iqna produqtiul aqtivebSi, anu fizikuri da adamianuri kapitalis Sesaqmnel investiciebSi da ara im usagno importze, romelic ar iwvevs investiciaze ukugebis zrdas. saqarTvelom unda gamoiyenos `vefxvebis~ warmatebis gakveTili, gansakuTrebiT ki ori tyupi politikisa, romlebic erTmaneTisgan ganuyofelia _ “disciplina maRali danazogebisa da investiciebisa produqtiul aqtivebSi”. es aris qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis aucilebeli faqtori. axali mTavroba unda iyos kompetenturi, ekonomikuri ganaTlebiT aRWurvili, rom SesZlos Sida investiciebis strategiis Camoyalibeba, romelic maqsimaluri efeqturobiT gamoiyenebs qveynis resursebsa da SesaZleblobebs mkacri fiskaluri disciplinis gaTvaliswinebiT. radgan axali mTavrobis fiskaluri resursebi pirdapiri investiciebis aqtiur SesaZleblobas gamoricxavs, pirvel etapze ZiriTadi Zalisxmeva unda iqnas mimarTuli Sida investiciebis donis zrdisaken arapirdapiri gziT, anu saxelmwifos politikis iseTi erTobliobiT, romelic waaxalisebs da Seqmnis momgebiani kerZo investiciebis SesaZleblobebs.

mdgradi investiciebis maRali donis miRweva da amave dros ucxouri investiciebis mozidva SesaZlebeli iqneba mxolod maSin, Tu axali mTavroba SesZlebs erovnuli valutis gamyarebas, ekonomikis zrdis tempis tendenciis Seqmnas, xarisxiani stabiluri da gamWvirvale maregulirebeli sistemis Camoyalibebas, dabali sabiujeto deficitis da dabal Tanafardobas sagareo valsa da qveynis erovnul Semosavals Soris. aziuri `vefxvebis~ warmateba naTeli magaliTia imisa, rom mTavrobis roli aris gadamwyveti ekonomikis marTvaSi. swored rom efeqturi kombinacia bazarze orientirebuli politikisa da ekonomikaSi industriuli politikis meSveobiT Carevis, aris winapiroba mdgradi da xarisxobrivi ekonomikuri zrdis. es moiTxovs teqnokratTa maRal profesionalizms da gadawyvetilebebis miRebisa da maregulirebeli sistemis gamWvirvale process, raTa Tavidan aviciloT SeZlebuli finansuri jrufebis kerZo interesebis zegavlena, rentis maZiebloba (rent seeking) da proteqcionizmi.

swored disciplinirebuli, maRaleTikuri da profesionaluri, arapolitikuri teqnokratTa arsebobam ganapiroba samxreT-aRmosavleT aziis wamyvani qveynebis warmatebuli Careva ekonomikis marTvaSi da industriuli politikis warmateba. mTavar orientirad saqarTvelosaTvis unda iqces
is, rac aris samarko niSani “vefxvebis” warmatebisa _ swrafi ekonomikuri zrda, socialuri samarTlianobisa da Semosavlebis radikaluri diferenciaciis gareSe. ufro martivad rom vTqvaT, ekonomikuri zrdis maRalma tempebma ar unda gamoiwvios garkveuli socialuri fenis, RaribTa raodenobis zrda. anu, ekonomikuri zrda garkveuli Tanasworobis SenarCunebiT. es ki miiRweva mTavrobisa da Tavisufali bazris optimaluri nazaviT.

zemoT aRniSnuli damatebiTi RonisZiebebis ararsebobis pirobebSi mxolod sagareo ekonomikuri urTierTobebis liberalizaciis strategia da “Ria karis” ekonomikuri politika Sedegs ar gamoiRebs da ufro metic, igi arastabilurobis, socialuri usamarTlobis gaRrmavebis, konfliqtebisa da socialuri afeTqebebis wyaro gaxdeba. saqarTvelos momavalma politikis Semqmnelebma unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom Secdomaa ubralo kopireba `kargi ekonomikuri qcevis~ modelisa. Tu ekonomikuri ganviTarebis istoria kargi maswavlebelia, igi upirvelesad gviCvenebs, rom yvela warmatebuli qveyana Tavisi erovnuli nairsaxeobis kapitalizmis Semqmnelia. im sazogadoebebma, romlebmac warmatebas miaRwies meore msoflio omis Semdeg, yvelam SesZlo Camoeyalibebina Tavisi sakuTari kombinacia efeqturi ganviTarebis gzebisa. makroekonomikuri stabiluroba da maRali sainvesticio done iyo yvela warmatebuli qveynis ganviTarebis politikaSi saerTo, amas iqiT ki bevri detali ekonomikuri ganviTarebisa iyo gansxvavebuli. amitomac mzardi qarTuli ekonomika unda daefuZnos sakuTar erovnul `stils~ kapitalizmisa da aramc da aramc ar ecados meqanikuri kopireba ekonomikuri Tu politikuri ganviTarebis sxva modelebisa. adreuli warmatebuli qveynebi xom swored aseTi erovnuli modelis Seqmnis Sedegad gaxdnen warmatebulni da dRes arian sayovelTaod cnobilni, rogorc: Sveduri, amerikuli, iaponuri, germanuli stili kapitalizmisa.

8. kulturuli filtrebi (Glocalization) 

aq aucileblad mimaCnia ori sityvis Tqma im saSiSroebaze, rac globalizaciisagan ganpirobebul kulturul erTferovnebasa da homogenizacias moaqvs Cveni sazogadoebisaTvis. Cven unda gavacnobieroT is saSiSroeba, rac globalur kapitalizms moaqvs da Sesabamisad SevimuSavod garkveuli “sacreli filtrebi” kulturuli homogenizaciis winaaRmdeg. globalizaciis Tanamedrove pirobebSi kulturuli da erovnuli gansxvavebulobani ukvalod waiSlebian, Tu maT ar aRmoaCndaT Sinagani dinamizmi da axali garemosadmi adaptirebis unari. amitomac, dRes dasavleTSi am procesebisagan Tavis dasacav meqnizmebs ewoda “glokalizmi”. glokalizmi niSnavs erovnuli kulturis unars mZlavr kulturasTan Sejaxebisas moaxerxos imis gaTaviseba da SeTviseba, rac bunebrivad esadageba da amdidrebs erovnul kulturas da amasTan erTad win aRudges, imas rac WeSmaritad ucxo da arabunebrivia. es procesi Zalzed Zveli da nacnobia Cveni qveynisaTvis. elinizmiT dawyebuli da rusifikaciiT damTavrebuli, Cveni sazogadoeba mudmivad ganicdida mravali dominanti kulturis zegavlenas da xSirad, bunebrivTan erTad mravali ucxo da miuRebelic SeuTvisebia. aseve, roca Cveni sazogadoeba berZnuli logikis tradiciebs gaecno, advilad SeiTvisa igi, magram uaryo SiSveli sxeulis zedmeti dResaswaulisa da msaxurebis Zveli berZnuli kultura. aseve, Tanamedrove pirobebSi, rodesac qveynebs Soris yovelgvari barieri da kedeli irRveva, im erovnul kulturebs, romelTac SeswevT “glokalizaciis” unari, aqvT realuri upiratesoba, xolo maT visac es unari ar gaaCniaT, maT swrafad unda SeiZinon igi, Torem globalizacia didi danakargebis momtani iqneba maTTvis. aseTi sazogadoebebi xSirad kulturuli fundamentalizmis gziT cdiloben TavdacviTi meqanizmebis amuSavebas, rac aseve damRupveli iqneba Cveni erovnuli kulturisaTvis.

“glokalizaciis” meqanizmis garda Cvenma sazogadoebam aucileblad unda aamuSavos sxva TavdacviTi filtrebic _ specialuri arealebis dacvis kanonmdebloba, unikaluri regionebisa da kulturuli memkvidreobebis dacva axali mSeneblobebisa da sxva obieqtebisagan.

dRes mTeli msoflio acnobierebs im faqts, rom Tu globalizacia safuZvels gamoaclis erovnul yofierebas kulturuli homogenizaciiT, an bunebrivi garemos, habitatis dangreviT, maSin sazogadoebis socialur erTianobasac ecleba safuZveli, rac yvelasaTvis damRupvelia. erovnuli yofa, kultura, tradiciebi aris adamianebis qcevis is nebayoflobiTi SemzRudavi institutebi, romelic cxovrebas stabilurobas da azrs aniWebs. es aris qvitkiri, romelic sazogadoebisa da Temis erTianobas inarCunebs. amis gareSe ar arsebobs jansaRi sazogadoeba.

globalizaciis pirobebSi Cven ver gadavarCenT Cvens erovnul kulturasa da yofierebas, Tu Cvens kulturas Tavad ar aRmoaCndeba Sinagani neba da dinamizmi kvlav axali formiT, axali SinaarsiT TviTganviTarebisa da gabrwyinebisa. globalizacia evoluciis aqamde arsebul models
“turbo-Zravs” udgams da susti erovnuli kulturebisaTvis qronikuli CamorCenilobis perspeqtivebsRa tovebs. amitom, yvelam erTad wvlili unda SevitanoT Cveni erovnuli kulturis sijansaRis gazrdasa da dacvaSi. globalizacia sasargeblo0 da progresuli iqneba, Tu Cven movaxerxebT aucilebeli “filtrebis” dadgmas, romelic daicavs Cvens kulturasa da bunebriv garemos da amave dros mogvcems saSualebas miviRoT is saukeTeso, rac sxva kulturebs SeuqmniaT. aseT pirobebSi globalizacia CvenTvis gaxdeba efeqturi gza kulturaTa gacvlisa. Cven gavsinjavT iaponur “suSis” da davtkbebiT “kabukis” cqeriT, xolo iaponelebi Cveni elarjiTa da daisiT. amiT xeli Seewyoba kulturaTa daaxlovebas maTi mravalferovnebis SenarCunebiT da Tavidan avicilebT homogenizaciasa da erTferovnebas sterilur da standartul samyaroSi.
 

9. 21-e saukunis sazogadoeba 

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, mTavrobas uWirs “gamarjvebulTa” SerCeva, magram gamokveTilia is xuTi ZiriTadi industria, romelic ibatonebs 21-e saukuneSi _ mikroeleqtronika, kompiuteruli teqnika, telekomunikacia, xelovnuri masalebi dabioteqnologia. swored es Seqmnis axal msoflio ekonomikas.

XIX saukunis dasawyisSi industriulma revoluciam Secvala sasoflo-sameurneo sazogadoeba, romelic mosaxleobis 98%-is dasaqmebis erTaderTi sfero iyo. dRes ki amerikis mosaxleobis 1%-ze cota metia am seqtorSi dasaqmebuli.

100 wlis Semdeg eleqtrofikaciam moitana me-2 industriuli revolucia, rasac Sedegad moyva lokaluri ekonomikidan erovnul ekonomikaze gadasvla;

XX saukunis pirveli naxevari dasWirdaT amerikelebsa da dasavleT evropelebs, raTa eswavlaT erovnuli ekonomikis marTva. didma depresiam aswavla amerikelebs, rom qaosur, araregulirebad safinanso bazars SeuZlia qveynis ekonomikis sruli dangreva;

meore msoflio omis Semdeg, amerikelebma warmoidgines, rom kapitalizmi Tavad aRdgeboda evropaSi. es ase ar moxda. sami wlis Semdeg amerikelebma gaiRviZes da aRmoaCines, rom evropa da iaponia daadga socializmis gzas da amis SiSs mohyva marSalis gegma.

dRes mesame industriuli revoluciaa mikroeleqtronika, kompiuteruli teqnika, telekomunikacia, xelovnuri masalebi da bioteqnologia, rac cvlis yvelafers, rasTanac aqamde Cven Sexeba gvqonia. mxolod am dekadaSi moxdeba imdeni aRmoCena medicinaSi, rac mTlianad ar momxdara kacobriobis istoriis manZilze. teqnologia ise swrafad icvleba, rom aravin icis, sad iqneba momavalSi didi mogeba. rogorc meore industriulma revoluciam gamoiwvia lokaluri ekonomikidan erovnul ekonomikaze gadasvla, aseve mesame industriuli revolucia iwvevs erovnulidan globalur ekonomikaze gadasvlas. amerikul kompaniebs Soris yvelaze ufro amerikuli kompania _ `koka-kola~, 80%-ze mets yidis amerikis gareT. es cvlileba aris metad SemaSfoTebeli da arsebuli cxovrebis wesis damangreveli.

Tanamedrove ekonomikis pirobebSi warmatebisa da qveynis simdidris Zveli safuZvlebi warsuls bardeba. kacobriobis mTeli istoriis manZilze simdidris safuZveli iyo bunebriv resursebze (miwa, oqro, navTobi) kontroli. dRes ki warmatebis sawindaria codna, inteleqtualuri sakuTreba. msoflioSi yvelaze mdidari adamiani, bil geitsi, ar flobs bunebriv resursebsa da xelSesaxeb aqtivebs, igi flobs mxolod codnas, inteleqtualur sakuTrebas. codna gadaiqca simdidrisa da warmatebis axal safuZvlad.

kacobriobis istoriaSi arasdros yofila amdeni da aseTi SesaZleblobebis xana. sxvaoba ocnebasa da mis realurad xorcSesxmas Soris arasdros yofila ase Semcirebuli. dRes Cven mxolod Cveni warmodgenebiT da warmosaxviT varT SezRuduli, sxvamxriv ki yvelaferi SesaZlebelia. srulad rom miaRwio Sens potencials, yoveli Cvengani unda gaxdes rogorc meocnebe, aseve Semsrulebeli, rogorc idealisti aseve pragmatisti. adre Tu ocneba fantazia iyo, dRes igi progresis wyaroa. arsebulis ganuwyveteli gaumjobeseba industriuli drois koncefciaa.Ggaumjobeseba rasakvirvelia umjobesia, vidre arafris keTeba, magram mas dRes mainc marginaluri Rirebuleba aqvs. liderebi ar miiswrafvian odnav ukeTesobisaken, odnav ufro meti efeqturobisaken, an fasadis Secvlisaken, aramed isini angreven Zvels da SemoaqvT axali modelebi.

Tu qveyanas gadarCena unda am ultrakonkurenciis pirobebSi, maSin inovacia unda eZebos ara axal produqtSi, aramed axal bizneskoncefciaSi. Sejibri axla mimdinareobs ara produqtebs Soris, aramed bizneskoncefciebs Soris. bizneskoncefciis inovaciaAaris erTaderTi wyaro axali
sazogadoebis warmatebisTvis, SedaredebiTi upiratesobis miRwevisa da gamarjvebisaTvis, resursebis ukmarisobis am pirobebSi.

cvlileba moiTxovs pirovnebebs, romlebic acnobiereben axlis Seqmnis SesaZlebelobas da aucileblobas da iniciativas Tavis Tavze iReben. anterpreniorebia saWiro, vinc dainaxavs axali teqnologiebisa da axali drois ekonomikur SesaZleblobebs. saqarTveloSi dRes arsebuli biukrokratia amas ver gaakeTebs imitom, rom swored arsebuli biukrokratiaa, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba cvlilebebs, radgan maT arsebuli statusqvos SenarCunebis didi interesi aqvT.

Cven unda viyoT ara problemebze da xelovnurad warmoqmnil winaaRmdegobebze damokidebulni, aramed SesaZleblobebze orientirebuli sazogadoeba. warmateba, iseve rogorc bedniereba, TavisTavad ar moipoveba, is mxolod uneblie Sedegia pirovnuli Tavdadebisa da im saqmis msaxurebisa, romelic TiToeul pirovnebaze gacilebiT didia. Cven unda vkiTxoT Cvens Tavs: ra aris aseTi didi saqme CvenTvis, risi Secvla gvinda? isini, visac riskis gaweva SeuZlia, qmnian simdidres imitom, rom aravin icis bolomde risi gakeTebaa SesaZlebeli, sanam Tavad ar gamocdis saqmiT. kapitalizmi `aRmSeneblobiTi ngrevaa~, romelic moiTxovs decentralizebul sazogadoebas, ufro swored balans _ unitarizmsa da decentralizacias Soris. axali angrevs
Zvels da axlis Senebas mihyavs ekonomika win. Aaq anterpreniorebi arian saWironi, romelTac mohyavT axali teqnologiebi, bizneskoncefciebi komerciul dagvirgvinebamde. isini arian kapitalizmis `cvlilebis agentebi~.

rodesac sazogadoeba ar aris organizebuli ise, rom SesZlos Zveli kerZo interesis, statusqvosa da istebliSmentis gverdze gadaweva, maSin antrepreniorebi ver warmoSvebian, ar gamoCndebian. isini zamTarSi gamosazamTrebel daTvebs gvanan, TiTqos aq arian, magram aravin icis zustad sad, sanam gazafxuli Tovls ar daadnobs da ar daTbeba. ar arsebobs institucionaluri Semcvleli individualuri anterpreniorebisa, romlebic am cvlilebis agentebi arian. isini qmnian simdidres. maT gareSe qveyana Raribia.

codnis ekonomikaSi lideria is, visac SeuZlia didi kompaniebis gazrda. patara warmoeba, romelic patarad rCeba, ar aris ekonomikurad saintereso. isini ar awarmoeben inovaciur produqcias, ar ixdian maRal xelfass, ar arian eqsportze orientirebulni, ar arian inovatoruli teqnologiebis Semqmnelni; anterpreniorebi rom iyvnen, maSin swrafad gaizrdebodnen didi kompaniad. patara momxiblavi ar aris; momxiblavia is, rac pataridan swrafad iqceva didad.

msoflio safinanso bazris demokratizaciis pirobebSi, maRali teqnologiebis intensiuri warmoeba SeiZleba Seiqmnas yvelgan, rogorc Rarib, aseve mdidar qveyanaSi. bunebrivi resursi naklebmniSvnelovania, misi yidva advilia msoflio bazarze da advilad transportirebadia. teqnologiuri aRmoCena TavisiT ar xdeba, zogierT sazogadoebas aqvs cnobismoyvareoba da survili kvlevisa da investirebisa, zogierTs _ ara. adamianuri talanti Tanabradaa msoflioSi gabneuli, magram gamomgonebloba _ ara. nakleb ganaTlebuli da aracnobismoyvare adamianebiT warmodgenili sazogadoeba ver Seqmnis axals. cnobismoyvareobis gaRviZeba aris swored yvelaze didi amocana umaRlesi skolisa.

XXI saukunis sazogadoeba mudmivad unda svamdes Semdeg kiTxvebs: ramdenad kompiuterizirebulia qveyana? ramdeni kompiuteria erT ojaxze? internetis ramdeni momxmarebelia, ramden moswavlesa da students aqvs eleqtronuli fostis misamarTi? ramdenma axalgazrdam icis ucxo ena? ramdenad swrafad viTardeba qveyana? ramdenad swrafad iRebs mTavroba da sazogadoeba gadawyvetilebebs? ramdenad swrafad xdeba ideidan saboloo produqtamde misvla? ramdenad Riaa mTavrobis gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi sazogadoebisaTvis?E(es korufciis aRmofxvris da mTavrobis efeqturobis winapirobaa). ramdenad acnobierebebs cvlilebebis aucileblobas mTavroba da ramdenad efeqturia qveynis xelmZRvaneloba da Tu araa, ramdenad advilia mTavrobis legitimuri gziT Secvla. ramdenad mzad varT Zvelis dasangrevad da axlis asaSeneblad? ramdenad kargia Cveni qveynis brendi _ saxe? 

10. saxelmwifos roli qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi 

Ria sabazro sistemis Camoyalibeba da msoflio ekonomikisadmi gaxsnili damokidebuleba SesaZloa qveynisaTvis sargeblianobis wyarod iqces. investiciebisa da mowyobilobebis, ideebisa da teqnologiebis importireba, ucxoelTa danazogebze xelmisawvdomoba saqarTvelosTvis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis tradiciuli barierebis gadalaxvis SesaZleblobas qmnis. magram yovelive es aris mxolod potenciuri sargebeli, romelic realur sargeblobad iqceva mxolod maSin, rodesac qveynis mmarTvelebi saqarTvelos Ria ekonomikuri politikis garda Sida institucionalur mowyobaze ifiqreben.

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, mxolod is qveynebi aRmoCdnen warmatebulni, romlebmac SeZles Sida sainvesticio strategiis formulireba da Seqmnes Sesabamisi institucionaluri baza im gardauvali sagareo Sokebis mosagerieblad, romelsac iwvevs qveynis msoflio bazarTan integrireba, da ara isini, vinc mxolod Ria ekonomikis SeqmniT anu sagareo vaWrobisa da kapitalis dinebis liberalizaciiT dakmayofilda.

aqedan gamomdinare, qveynis politikis SemqmnelTa prioritetad unda iqces koncentrireba ekonomikuri zrdis fundamentalr safuZvlebze. es safuZvlebia Sida investiciebi, makroekonomikuri stabiluroba, adamianuri resursebi, stabiluri safinanso sistema, fasebis damaxinjebis SezRudva, ucxouri teqnologiebis mimarT Ria politika.

aseve sasargeblo iqneboda mTavrobis mxridan e.w. `SerCeviTi Careva~ ekonomikaSi, raTa moxdes dabalansireba iq, sadac e.w. `market failure~ anu bazris marcxi informaciis naklovanebisa Tu sxva mizezebis gamo gardauvalia. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Tavisufali bazari ganawilebis ufro efeqturi meqanizmia, vidre mTavrobis Careva. `SerCeviTi Careva~ moicavs monetaruli da fiskaluri politikiT manipulirebas, sagadasaxado ganakveTis da kreditis marTvas, SerCeviT industriul politikas, eqsportze orientirebul sagareo vaWrobas. mTavrobis politika safuZvlebisa da SerCeviTi Carevis kombinaciiT aucilebel biZgs miscems qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebas.

saqarTvelos msoflio bazarTan mzardi integrireba qmnis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis aqamde arnaxul SesaZleblobebs da amave dros zrdis riskis faqtorebs, msoflio bazarze garemos swrafi cvlilebis gamo. grZelvadiani kapitalis Semodineba, teqnologiis transferi, menejeruli Cvevebis difuzia xels Seuwyobs produqtiulobis zrdas. amave dros saqarTvelos ekonomika iqneba riskis qveS, romelic gamowveulia saerTaSoriso kapitalebis moZraobis meryeobiT, msoflio bazris garemos swrafi cvalebadobiT, finansuri nakadebiT da investorTa joguri fsiqologiis arsebobiT.Aam gare riskebze da Sokebze efeqturi reagireba damokidebulia
saqarTveloSi makroekonomikuri da institucionaluri bazis arsebobaze. es movlenebi saSualebas mogvcems msoflio bazarTan integrirebiT gamowveuli sargeblianobis maqsimizacias da amave mizeziT gamowveuli riskis minimizacias.

qveyanam unda moaxdinos orientiris Secvla. mxolod eqsportze da ucxour pirdapir investiciebze orientaciisagan, gadavides mowinave novatoruli ideebis importze, aseve naxevarfabrikatebisa da teqnologiatevadi mowyobilobebis importze. mniSvnelovania im institutTa erTobliobis importirebac, romelic gazrdis ekonomikuri zrdis SesaZleblobebs. gare Sokebi moiTxovs swored aseTi institucionaluri bazis arsebobas, romlebic SeZlebdnen im
konfliqtis marTvas, romelic gardauvalia Tavisufali bazris pirobebSi da romelic warmoSobs `gamarjvebulebsa~ da `damarcxebulebs~. aseTi institucionaluri uzrunvelyofis ararsebobis pirobebSi mTavrobas drouli makroekonomikuri regulirebis politikis ganxorcielebis saSualebas ar miscemen specialuri interes-jgufebi, profkavSirebi, biznes-wreebi, sazogadoebrivi organizaciebi. iseTi sazogadoeba, rogoric Cvenia, sadac socialuri, eTnikuri da klasobrivi erTianoba darRveulia, gansakuTrebuli safrTxis winaSe dgas, paralizebisa da obstruqciis TvalsazrisiT. konfliqtis marTvis institucionaluri uzrunvelyofa amitomac ufro mniSvnelovania. es institutebia Tanamonawileobaze dafuZnebuli politikuri institutebi, samoqalaqo da politikuri Tavisufleba, Tavisufali profkavSirebi, arakorumpirebuli biurokratia, teqnokratTa jgufebi, maRali xarisxis sajaro samsaxuri, samonitoro `
WATCH DOG~-Ta instituti, miukerZoebeli da damoukidebeli sasamarTlo sistema, socialuri dazRvevisa da usafrTxoebis bade. es institutebi aucilebelia, rogorc sagareo Sokebis, agreTve Sida arastabilurobis da warmatebuli _ samarTliani sazogadoebis Camosayalibeblad.

qveyanas sWirdeba iseTi samTavrobo gundi, romelic kargad acnobierebs, Tu ra aris misi mTavari prioritetebi, misi mTavari misia, rameTu misia gansazRvravs samoqmedo strategias, strategia ki mTavrobis organizaciul struqturas, mis Semadgenlobas. mTavrobis marTvis upirvelesi amocana aris orientireba, Sedegis miRwevasa da efeqtur moqmedebaze. amisaTvis ki aucilebelia mkafiod gansazRvra imisa Tu ra aris mizani, Sedegi da efeqturi operirebis kriteriumi. mmarTveloba arsebobs mxolod erTi mizanisTvis da es aris mTavrobis saqmianobis Sedegi-rezultati. mTeli resursebi unda iqnes mobilizebuli swored am dasaxuli Sedegis misaRwevad. aseTive sqemiT unda funqcionirebdes mTeli sazogadoeba da iq momqmedi yvela organizacia da amdenad Tanamedrove warmatebuli sazogadoebis mTavari mizani gaxlavT aramxolod Tanamedrove teqnologia, informacia da produqtiuloba da Sromis nayofiereba, aramed marTvadi organizaciebi da upirvelesad mTavroba romelic qmnis Sedegs, aRwevs rezultats.

dRevandel pirobebSi mTavrobis xarisxi ormagad fasobs. Cven gvWirdeba “Semcirebuli” mTavroba, raTa bazarma ufro efeqturad moaxerxos resursebis ganawileba. magram gvinda ufro swrafi da efeqturi mTavroba, romelsac SeeZleba ekonomikis, Tavisufali bazris regulireba zedmeti `daxrCobisa~ da amave dros bazarze kontrolis meqanizmebis SenarCunebiT. CvenTvis mTavria mTavrobis zomis Semcireba da misi xarisxis gazrda. erTi yvelaze mTavari wyaro SedarebiTi upiratesobisa dRes qveynisTvis aris Tanamedrove efeqturi da patiosani sajaro samsaxuri. Cven unda SevqmnaT sistema, sadac anterprenioni warmartebuli iqneba mowinave strategiisa da praqtikis xarjze, da ara specialuri privilegiebisa da maRal Tanamdebobebze megobrebis arsebobis xarjze.

amave dros, Cven Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi, me vityodi “socialuri solidarobis” sazogadoebaSi vcxovrobT da unda uzrunvelvyoT droebiT `damarcxebulTa~ movla-patronoba da maTi kvlav produqtiul saqmianobaSi dabruneba. amitom Tanamedrove mTavrobisa da warmatebuli sazogadoebis mTavari prioriteti unda iqnas msoflio klasis ganaTlebis sistemis Seqmna, romelic kargad aRWurvil codnis muSakebs Seqmnis am rTuli da axali ekonomikis zRvaSi navigaciisaTvis. da aseve meqanizmi, romelic socialurad daucvel fenebs upatronebs, radgan is
sazogadoeba, sadac uzarmazari zRvaria mqonebelTa da uqonelTa Soris (iseTi, rogorc Cvens qveyanaSia) jansaRi sazogadoeba ver iqneba. mTavrobis roli imaSi gamoixateba, rom SesaZlebloba misces bazaars iyos ufro Ria, gamWvirvale, korufciisagan Tavisufali, raTa bazarma imuSaos ufro efeqturad axali simdidris, dasaqmebisa da socialuri kapitalis Sesaqmnelad. imisaTvis, rom saqarTvelo ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzas daadges, aucilebelia simdidris Seqmnis procesis amuSaveba. mTavroba simdidres ar qmnis, es mTavrobis saqme ar aris. mTavroba amis magivrad qmnis xelsayrel iuridiul, politikur, ekonomikur da socialur garemos, romelic aris maqsimalurad xelSemwyobi qveyanaSi simdidris Seasqmnelad. Cven yvelam unda gavacnobieroT, rom qveyana faqtiurad irCevs keTildReobas an umecrebasa da siRatakes. Cven unda movTxovoT Cvens Tavs, Cvens sazogadoebas da Cvens mTavrobas, raTa avirCioT keTildReoba da ara umecreba, siRatake, korufcia, daundobloba, uguloba. Tanamedrovemsoflio ekonomika iZleva arCevanis safuZvels _ jansaRi sazogadoeba da keTildReoba, romelic codnasa da Tavdadebas moaqvs da umecreba, siRatake da uimedoba, romelic ucodinarobasa da korufcias moaqvs.
 

11. marTvis xelovneba 

yvela organizaciam globaluri konkurentunarianoba unda gaixados strategiul miznad. arc erT organizacias ar unda hqondes gadarCenisa da warmatebis imedi, Tuki igi ar uswordeba im standarts, romelsac am sferos lideri awesebs mTeli msoflios masStabiT. XXIs-Si ukve aRar iqneba SesaZlebeli qveynisa Tu biznesis ekonomikuri ganviTareba iaf muSaxelze dayrdnobiT. ranairadac iafi ar unda iyos misi muSaxeli, biznesi, garda uaRresad mcire da adgilobrivi biznesisa (magaliTad adgilobrivi restorani), ver gadarCeba, Tu misi mosamsaxureebi swrafad ver miaRweven iseTsave Sromis nayofierebasa da produqtiulobas rogoric msoflio masStabiT aqvs am dargis liderebs.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bizneskoncefciis _ biznes-modelis inovaciaa informaciuli revoluciis pirobebSi SedarebiTi upiratesobis ganmsazRvreli. bizneskoncefciis inovacia aris warmatebis erTaderTi saSualeba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzaze axalmosulTaTvis da gansakuTrebiT, iseTi qveynisaTvis, rogoric resursebs moklebuli saqarTveloa. Bbizneskoncefciis inovacia aris unari imisa, rom warmoidgino arsebuli biznesmodelisagan diametrulad gansxvavebuli biznes koncefcia.

dRes metad gavrcelebulia pirovnebisa Tu organizaciebis mier cda imisa, rom amoicnon momavali. maTi mizania, rom rogorme miiRon winaswari Setyobineba imaze, Tu ra moxdeba. magram azrovnebis inovatorebi bevr dros ar xarjaven momavlis winaswarmetyvelebaSi, miuxedavad imisa,
rom bevri aspeqti momavlisa maRali albaTobis matarebelia. magaliTisaTvis, gaizrdeba kacobriobis adamianis geniT manipulirebis SesaZlebloba, kompiuterizaciis fari Semcirdeba da a.S. miuxedavad amisa, momavlis winaswarmetyveleba SeuZlebelia.

80-iani wlebSi dasavleTSi erT-erTma yveleze popularulma gamocemam Caatara gamokvleva. gamokvlevaSi monawileobda sxvadasxva prestiJuli universitetis ekonomikis fakultetis xuTi studenti, xuTi didi korporaciis prezidenti, msoflios wamyvani xuTeulis finansTa ministrebi da xuTi nagvis Semgrovebeli. yovel maTgans unda ewinswarmetyvelebina, rogori iqneboda dolaris kursi inglisur girvanqa sterlingTan SedarebiT 10 wlis Semdeg, inflaciis done wamyvani evropuli da Crdilo amerikis kontinentis qveynebisa, navTobis fasi da sxva makroekonomikurimaCveneblebi. rodesac dadga 1995 weli da Sefasda am gamokvlevis Sedegebi, cxadia, winaswarmetyveleba mcdari aRmoCnda. magaliTad, maTi winaswarmetyveleba inflaciis doneze iyo 8%, rodesac realuri inflacia am qveynebSi cotaTi aRemateboda 3%-s. am Secdomas eqneba katastrofis msgavsi Sedegi, Tu am informacias gamoiyeneb grZelvadiani kapitaldabandebis diskontis donis SeasarCevad. sainteresoa, rom yvelaze Sors realobisagan aRmoCnda finansTa ministrebis winaswarmetyveleba, xolo yvelaze axlos _ korporaciis prezidentebisa da menagveebisa, da maTac imdenad ararealuri prognozi gaakeTes, rom Sedegebi faqtiurad gamousadegari aRmoCnda. erTi cnobili gamonaTqvamisa ar iyos _ `mxolod suleli akeTebs prognozs da gansakuTrebiT ki momavlis Sesaxeb~.

A amis gamo qveynebi da organizaciebi momavlis aramdgradobis gansaWvretad iyeneben mosalosneli scenarebis gamas. scenarebis dagegmva miznad isaxavs mosalodneli variantebis alternativis ganxilvas, raTa nawilobriv mainc Seiqmnas suraTi imisa, Tu ra SeiZleba moxdes. TavisTavad scenarebis dagegmvas bevri dadebiTi mxare aqvs, igi umniSvnelovanesi iaraRia moqnili mTavrobisa Tu organizaciis xelSi, magram amasTanave nakleb produqtiuria da ZiriTadad damcavi meqanizmia, radgan praqtikulad ufro yuradReba problemazea koncentrilebuli, vidre SesaZleblobebze. mTavroba, organizaciebi unda ecadon ara marto warmoidginon potenciuri momavali _ ra SeiZleba moxdes, aramed warmoidginon is, Tu risi miRweva, risi Seqmna SeuZliaT maT. qveynebi da organizaciebi momavlis SeqmnaSi marcxdebian ara imitom, rom ver gaakeTes swori prognozi momavlis Sesaxeb, aramed imitom, rom maT igi ver warmoidgines; es aris cnobismoyvareoba da SemoqmedebiToba, rac maT akliaT.

organizaciis, qveynis, mTavrobis mmarTveloba koncentrirebuli unda iyos dasaxuli miznisa da Sedegis miRwevis irgvliv organizebaze. mTavrobaca da organizaciac iqmneba swored am Sedegisa da miznis misaRwevad. menejmentis upirvelesi amocanac miznisa da Sedegis gansazRvraa mocemuli
organizaciisaTvis. rodesac Cven mTavrobas virCevT, maT Cven, sazogadoebas unda agvixsnan Tu ra aris maTi mizani da Cvenc maTi muSaobis Sedegi unda SevafasoT am miznisa da Sedegis miRwevis doniTa da xarisxiT. menejmenti arsebobs mxolod erTi mizniT _ miaRwios organizaciis mier dasaxul Sedegs, rezultats. lideris xelovneba Sedegis, amocanis miznis dasaxvis xelovnebaa, menejmentis xelovneba ki am miznis, amocanis, Sedegisa da xedvis aRsasruleblad resursebis mobilizaciaa. yoveldRiuri saqmianobis organizeba da dagegmva, swored am Sedegis miRwevas unda emsaxurebodes da am sazomiT izomebodes. dRevandeli Cveni saqmianoba gvaaxlovebs dasaxul mizans? Cvens mier Sedgenili gegma da grafiki emsaxureba umoklesi gziT Sedegamde misvalas? ai es unda iyos kiTxvebi, rac mmarTvelma unda dausvas TiToeul muSaks da Tu pasuxi iqneba uaryofiTi, maSin is gegma da grafiki muSaobisa unda Seicvalos. Tu TiToeul muSaks, TiToeul Cvengans ar SeuZia imis Tqma Tu riTi xdis is Tavis organizacias, qveyanas ukeTes _ adgilad, ufro mimzidvelad da saboloo SedegTan ufro daaxlovebuls, maSin es niSnavs rom Cven ar varT produqtiulni da sargeblis momtanni Cveni sazogadoebisaTvis.

rodesac vlaparakobT inovaciisa da anterpreniorobis aucileblobaze, ar vgulisxmobT martooden biznesisa da ekonomikis sferos. 21-e saukunis sazogadoeba moiTxovs inovaciasa da anterpreniorizms cxovrebis yvela sferoSi, rogorc arsebobis wess. dRes upirveles yovlisa inovacias mTavroba saWiroebs da anterprenirebic swored samTavrobo seqtors sWirdeba. sami tipis anterpreniorebidan _ biznes anterpreniorebi, socialuri anterpreniorebi da mTavrobis anterpreniorebi, am ukanasknelze TiTqmis ar laparakoben, arada es aris Cveni sazogadoebis erT-erTi umTavresi problema. Tanamedrove msoflios arcerT wamyvan qveyanaSi mTavroba ukve veRar pasuxobs drois moTxovnebs da maT funqcionierebas seriozuli problemebi eqmneba yvelgan. Crdilo amerikelebs, dasavleT evropelebs, iaponelebs _ arcerT maTgans ara hyavs mTavroba, romelsac sazogadoebis farTo masebi pativs scemen da endobian. aq aRarafers vambob ganviTarebadi qveynebis, kerZod ki saqarTvelos savalalo mdgomareobaze, sadac mTavroba faqtiurad ar arsebobs, rogorc organizebuli gundi da xSirad igi arakompetenturi da yovelgvar Rirsebas moklebulia. yvela qveyanaSi dRes aris moqalaqeTa wyurvili da vedreba WeSmariti liderebisadmi _ mTavrobis anterpreniorebisadmi. es wyurvili da vedreba moqalaqeebisa gasagebia, magram rodesac aseTi sayovelTao ufunqcionerobaa Tavad mowinave dasavleTis qveynebSi, maSin Cven saxeze gvaqvs ara imdenad liderebis problema, aramed upirveles yovlisa sistemuri problema. Tanamedrove pirobebi saWiroebs inovacias, radganac is rac gvaqvs dRes _ Tanamedrove mTavrobis instituti, aris 400 welze metis Tavisi asakiT. erovnuli saxelmwifoebisa da Tanamedrove mTavrobis institutis gamogoneba-aRmoCena me-16 saukunis bolos, warmoadgenda Cvenamde moRweul erT-erT yvelaze ufro warmatebul inovacias, romelmac orasi wlis manZilze samyaro moicva da daipyro. magram dRes 21-e saukunea, siaxleebis droa. mTavroba da ara biznesi an arasamTavrobo seqtori iqneba yvelaze mniSvnelovani sfero anterpreniorebisa da inovaciis momdevno sami dekadis ganmavlobaSi.

mxolod marTveloba, menejmen tia is rac imarjvebs, an marcxdeba dRevandel postindustriul TamaSSi. produqciisa Tu momsaxurebis raodenoba Tu xarisxi ar aris damokidebuli muSebis axirebaze, aramed menejmentisa da liderebis siRrmesa da xarisxze. namdvili winamZRolis pirobebSi muSakni aRweven Sedegs, xolo aseTi winamZRolisa da lideris gareSe mxolod muSakTa Zalisxmeva Sedegs ar iZlevaekomomikuri Teoria da biznespraqtika aqamde samuSao Zalas ganixilavda rogorc danaxarjs. codnis ekonomikis pirobebSi ki Tu produqtiulobis gazrda gvsurs, codnis muSakni unda ganixilebodnen rogorc aqtivebi. samuSao Zala, romelic xeliT SromaSia dakavebuli ar flobs warmoebis saSvalebebs, codnis muSakebi ki warmoebis saSualebebis mflobelebi arian, radganac warmoebis saSualeba aris codna, romelic maT TavSia da advilad gadaadgilebadi da transportirebadia. imis gamo rom codnis muSakni Tavadve flioben warmoebis saSualebebs, isini arian metad mobilurni da organizaciebs isini sWirdebaT ufro metad, vidre maT sWirdebaT es organizaciebi. amitomaa, rom dRes am piropbebSi marTveloba ufro metad gaZnelebulia da misi maRali xarisxi gvWirdeba, ise rogorc arasodes. 

12. Sokebi, makropolitika da socialuri konfliqtebi

globalizacia, saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri integracia da Ria ekonomika, qveynis swraf progressa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis tempis zrdasTan erTad, gardauvalad qmnis sagareo Sokebis saSiSroebas. SeiZleba qveyana moulodnelad dadges mis mTavar saeqsporto produqciaze fasebis dacemis realobis winaSe, romelic SeiZleba Tavismxriv gamowveuli iyos msoflio bazris struqturis cvlilebiT, saerTaSoriso moTxovnis SemcirebiT da a.S. es qmnis sagareo Sokis situacias. am pirobebSi didi roli ekisreba mTavrobis swraf reagirebas. mainc ra berketebi arsebobs mTavrobis xelSi antiSokuri RonisZiebis gasatareblad da Sokis Sedegebis Sesarbileblad? pirveli gadaudebeli nabijia erovnuli valutis swrafi develvacia da fiskaluri SezRudva. devalvacias swrafadve unda mohyves xelfasis zrdis kontroli da saprocento ganakveTis swrafi zrda, raTa Tavidan aviciloT develveciiT gamowveuli inflacia. aucilebel gasatarebel RonisZiebebis Semdeg rigSia, biujetis xarjviTi nawilis Semcireba da SesaZloa gadasaxadebis gadidebac da importis tarifis gazrdac. imis gamo, rom yvela am RonisZiebebs droebiT mZime ekonomikuri da socialuri Sedegi eqneba, mTavrobis politika am RonisZiebis SerCevisas unda iTvaliswinebdes sagareo Sokis simwvavis dones. CamoTvlil RonisZiebaTa drouli gamoyeneba aris qveynis Sokidan swrafi gamoyvanis winapiroba. am pirobebSi aucilebelia mTavrobis kompententurobisa da patiosnebis maRali xarisxi, romelic Riad, yoveldRiurad auxsnis antiSokuri politikis aucileblobas da mosalodnel Sedegebs mosaxleobas. qveynis Sokuri mdgomareobidan swrafad da naklebi danaxarjebiT gamoyvanisaTvis, Semdegi aucilebeli konponentia, sazogadoebaSi samoqalaqo mSvidobis, socialuri solidarobis da konfliqtis mogvarebis meqanizmis arseboba. Tu qveyanas es komponenti ar gaaCnia, maSin Sokis uaryofiTi Sedegi da ekonomikis paralizeba da stagnacia gaurkveveli vadiT gagrZeldeba. sazogadoebis Rrma socialuri dapirispireba erTaderT gamosavals dautovebs mTavrobas, rom mimarTos sagareo vals da mZime fiskaluri mdgomareoba kidev ufro gaauaresos.

amis kargi magaliTia sami ganviTarebadi qveyana: samxreT korea, brazilia da TurqeTi. maTgan samxreT koream ganicada yvelaze mZafri sagareo Soki, radganac sagareo vaWroba gacilebiT didi procentuli xvedriT wilis matarebeli iyo mTlian erovnul SemosavalSi. Sesabamisad mogebis danakargi, romelic eqsportis Semcirebisa da importze fasebis gazrdis (navTobi) Sedegi gaxldaT, gacilebiT mZime iyo koreisaTvis; magram miuxdavad amisa samxreT koreis ekonomikuri zrda kidev ufro STambeWdavi gaxda am Sokis Semdeg (1973 wels navTobis fasebis zrdiT gamowveuli Soki). TurqeTma da braziliam ki ekonomikuri kolafsi ganicada. navTobis importze didad damokidebul samxreT koreis ekonomikam damatebiTi dartyma 1980 wlis gvalvis Semdegac miiRo da qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis tempi sami procentiT Semcirda. samxreT koream swrafad gamoiyena zemoT CamoTvlili RonisZiebani _ mTavrobam moaxdina erovnuli valutis devalvacia 17%-iT, SezRuda monetaruli politika, saprocento ganakveTi mkveTrad gazarda, ramac Seamcira fulis mimoqceva ekonomikaSi da Tavidan aicila inflacia. amas rasakvirvelia mohyva recesia, magram es aris aucilebeli xarki qveynisaTvis, raTa Tavi daaRwios ufro did kriziss.

Semdegi nawili antikrizisuli programisa, romelic samxreT koreaSi gaatares, iyo RonisZiebaTa mTeli kompleqsi, romelic koreas naklebdamokidebuls xdida importirebul navTobze. es amocana gansakuTrebiT rTuli Sesasrulebeli iyo, radgan samxreT koreis energomoxmarebaSi navTobis xvedriTi wili 63%-s aWarbebs. mTavrobam miaRwia energiis efeqtur gamoyenebas, navTobze nawilobriv fasebis aweviT da eleqtroenergiis gamoyenebis savaldebulo SemcirebiT arasasicocxlo obieqtebSi (liftebi, kondicionerebi da a.S.). am RonisZiebaTa erTobliobiT samxreT koream Tavidan aicila krizisis droSi gawelva da swrafad aRadgina ekonomikis zrdis tempi.

koreis magaliTi energiis momWirneobiTa da efeqturad gamoyenebis saqmeSi gansakuTrebulad sainteresoa saqarTvelosaTvis, romelic aseve srulad aris damokidebuli navTobisa da gazis importze. eleqtroenergiis momWirneobisa da efeqturobis gazrdisaTvis, saqarTveloSi amaswinandeli diferencirebuli tarifis daweseba, romelic savaluto fondis sqemis mixedviT moxda, gamarTlebulia, radgan fasis signali aris efeqturobis miRwevis saukeTeso saSualeba, magram mTavari, rac savaluto fondsa da saqarTvelos mTavrobis biurokratebs gamorCaT aris is, rom saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa umravlesobas ar gaaCnia araviTari saxsari aseTi tarifis gadaxdisa. eleqtroenergia ki pirveladi moxmarebis produqtia, romlis gareSec Tanamedrove cxovreba warmoudgenelia. saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da savaluto fondis biurokratebs aviwydebaT, rom biujetis Sevsebis ZiriTadi tvirTis socialurad daucveli mosaxleobis xarjze Sevseba, eTikurad umsgavsobaa da ekonomikurad ararealuri da gaumarTlebeli.

Tu Cven gvinda, rom fasis meqanizmma da signalma imuSaos, aucilebelia diferencirebul tarifTan erTad ise, rom fasis signals xeli ar SevuSaloT realuri moTxovnisa da moxmarebis CamoyalibebaSi, socialurad daucvel mosaxleobas unda mieces Tveobrivi fiqsirebuli anazRaureba, anu eleqtroenergiis aucilebeli minimumis moxmarebisaTvis saWiro Tanxa. am Tanxis gadaWarbebis SemTxvevaSi mosaxleobis es nawili elewtroenergiis safasurs Tavad gadaixdis da Tu dazogavs energias da naklebs moixmars, Tviuri Tanxa mis ojaxs darCeba. es RonisZieba samarTliania da ekonomikis TvalsazrisiTac gamarTlebulia, radgan fasis meqanizmi mosaxleobaSi optimaluri moxmarebis tradicias Camoayalibebs da momWirneobis kulturas Seqmnis.

aq rasakvirvelia Cndeba kiTxva, saidan unda dafinansdes es yovelTviuri fuladi daxmareba socialurad daucveli mosaxleobisaTvis? mTavrobam gamomgoneblobas unda mouxmos, nawili dafinansdeba saxelmwifo biujetis xarjze da ufro didi nawili unda dafinansdes am diferencirebuli tarifis maRali moTxovnilebebis mqone gadamxdelebis xarjze. es yvelaferi energetikis maregulirebelma komisiam unda gaiTvaliswinos tarifis damtkicebisas. yvelas unda
axsovdes, rom yvela qveyanaSi mdidari procentuladac da absolituradac met gadasaxads ixdis, vidre Raribi. aq gasakviri araferia. jansaRi sazogadoeba socialuri solidarobis gareSe warmoudgenelia.

rogorc aRiniSna, sagareo SokebTan brZolis swrafi da arapolitizirebuli meTodebis gatareba, aucilebeli pirobaa ekonomikis paralizebis Tavidan asacileblad. magram aseve aucilebelia da gadamwyveti samoqalaqo sazogadoeba da sazogadoebaSi arsebuli socialuri konfliqtis mogvarebis meqanizmis arseboba. mxolod is qveynebi da sazogadoebebi imkian sargebels msoflio ekonomikasTan mWidro integraciiT, romelTac aqvT aucilebeli Sida institucionaluri baza, romelic marTavs da agvarebs socialur konfliqtebs. sazogadoebebs, romlebic dayofilni arian socialuri dapirispirebiT da amave dros ar gaaCniaT socialuri konfliqtebis mogvarebis institucionaluri baza, sagareo SokebTan efeqturi brZolis unari ar SeswevT.

aziaSi ukanaskneli finansuri krizisis dasawyisSi erTi SexedviT ise Canda, TiTqos avtoritarul mTavrobebs ukeTesi Sansi eqnebodaT krizisiT gamowveuli socialuri afeTqebis Tavidan asacileblad. demokratiis e.w. `aziuri Rirebulebebis~ Secvlis momxreni, winaswarmetyvelebdnen tailandisa da samxreT koreis samoqalaqo mSvidobis da ekonomikis katastroful gauaresebas. sinamdvileSi sawinaaRmdego movlenebi ganviTarda. indonezia, romelic eTnikurad Wrelia da socialurad dayofilia, 1965 wlidan imarTeboda korumpirebuli diqtatoris _ suhartos mier. krizisis dawyebis pirvelsave dReebSi indonezia qaosSi Caeflo, misi ekonomikis zrda Semcirda 25%-ze metiT. samxreT koreis, tailandisa da taivanis demokratiulma institutebma, sxvadasxva socialur partniorTa Soris konsultaciebisa da kooperirebis praqtikam, ganapiroba ufro meti moqniloba da adaptireba. Sesabamisad krizisi swrafad iqna daZleuli. tailandisa da samxreT koreis demokratiuli reJimis pirobebSi, sistemam uzrunvelyo diskreditirebuli politikosebis mSvodobiani gziT Secvla, xelisuflebasa da mTavrobaSi axali liderebi movidnen. maT agreTve
aRmoaCndaT socialuri jgufebis monawileobis da konsulltaciebis meqanizmi, ramac mTavrobas SeaZlebina aucilebeli konsesusis swrafi miRweva, raTa efeqturi antikrizisuli politika ganexorcielebina zedmeti yoymanisa da gajanjlebis gareSe. imis gamo, rom demokratia uzrunvelyofs farTo fenebis marTvaSi monawileobis institucionalur meqanizms, sazogadoeba aseT pirobebSi mzadaa gamoiCinos ufro meti moTmineba, gauZlos gaWirvebas, sanam sistema reformirebis da antikrizisul programas gaatarebs. sazogadoeba mTavrobasTan erTad Ria da demokratiuli sistemis pirobebSi muSaobs krizisis dasaZlevad, gabatonebulia grZnoba, rom yvela Tanabaria, yvela erT bed qveS aris. amitom gasakviri ar aris, rom yvelaze swrafad da nakleb mtkivneulad krizisi swored rom yvelaze arakorumpirebulma da demokratiulma qveynebma daZlies _ tailandma, singapurma, avstraliam, hong-kongma, samxreT koream da taivanma.

tailandSi 1994 wlis bolos bangkokis centrSi saprotesto msvlelobis Sedegad mTavroba gadadga. tailandma airCia yvelaze patiosani da demokratiuli xelisufleba, miiRo radikalurad axali antikorufciuli konstitucia, romlis Tanaxmad politikosebma unda warmoadginon maTi personaluri aqtivebis da qonebis deklaracia mTavrobis postis dakavebisas da postidan wasvlis Semdgom. isini xdebian impiCmentis sagani, Tu 50 000 amomrCeveli moawers peticias xels, romelic maTi saqmianobis korufciulobis gamoZiebas moiTxovs.

aseve parlamentma miiRo informaciis Tavisuflebis aqti, romliTac tailandis sazogadoeba aqtiur monitorings uwesebs mTavrobas. axali konstitucia ver iqneboda mRebuli qveyanaSi rom ara mwvave finansuri krizisi. tailandelebma gadawyvites axali, legitimuri xelisuflebisaTvis Sansi miecaT, Sewyvites protestebi da qveynis marTvis paralizeba. mTeli mosaxleoba mobilizebuli iqna da solidarobis grZnobiT ganimsWvala. finansTa ministri iuwyeboda, rom miiRo patara gogonas werili, sadac igi mas warmatebas usurvebda antikrizisuli programis ganxorcielebaSi da qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gamosworebis saqmeSi Tavisi wvlilis Sesatanad 20 baThi daurTo werils, romelic mamamisis safuledan amouRia, raTa qveyanam savaluti fondis vali gaistumros. qveyanaSi wamovida mTeli talRa axali sabanko angariSebisa, raTa daxmarebodnen maT vinc socialurad daucveli aRmoCnda. lozungiT _ `tailandelebi exmarebian tailandelebs~, moxda mTeli qveynis mobilizeba da konsolidacia, qveyana swrafad gamovida krizisidan da kvlav daadga ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzas. garda amisa, tailandi am krizisis Semdeg socialurad da erovnulad ufro gaerTianebuli da gaZlierebuli aRmoCnda. ai, ra SeuZlia socialur solidarobas da ndobiT aRWurvil, gabedulsa da patiosan mTavrobas.

swored tailandis magaliTi unda gadmoiRos saqarTvelom. Cven haeriviT gvWirdeba kompetenturi, patiosani, gabeduli, Ria da msaxurebis wyurviliT aRsavse mTavroba, romelsac xalxi ndobas gamoucxadebs. Cven gvWirdeba axali mowodeba -`qarTvelebi exmarebian qarTvelebs~. ar SeiZleba saqarTveloSi vinme iyos wamlisa da tansacmlis gareSe, `arc erTi Rataki saqarTveloSi~, ai es aris dRes solidarobis grZnobiT aRsavse sazogadoebis amocana.

samxreT koreaSi finansuri krizisis Semdeg, 1998 wels, veterani opoziciuri partiis lideris prezidentad arCevam, daasrula yofili mmarTveli partiis naxevarsaukunovani batonoba. kim dai Cangi iyo yvelaze gamorCeuli liberal-demokrati politikosi, romelic prezidentad arCevas verc ki inatrebda finansur kriziss rom ar Seecvala qveynis politikuri situacia. iseve rogorc tailandSi, samxreT koreis axalma samTavrobo gundma, romelic ar iyo gasvrili wina xelisuflebis korufciul saqmianobaSi, swrafad ganmuxta politikuri daZabuloba qveyanaSi. kimma ganamtkica demokratiuli sistema da daamyara aliansi mSromelebsa da socialurad daucvel fenebs Soris. meqanizmi xalxis `xmis~ gasagonad ganmtkicda. xalxma igrZno Tavi politikuri procesis monawiled. man daiwyo soflisa da qalaqis mosaxleobasTan Sexvedrebis intensificireba da maTTvis yvelaze xelmisawvdom prezidentad iqca. igi aqtiurad muSaobda socialuri usafrTxoebis badis gasafarToveblad, umuSevarTaTvis kvalifikaciis gadamzadebis SesaZleblobebis gasazrdelad. prezidentma SesZlo muSaTa profkavSiruli moZraobis liderebis darwmuneba, raTa SeewyvitaT saprotesto moZraoba. igi sistematurad axdenda yoveli axali samTavrobo RonisZiebisa da mosalodneli cvlilebebis artikulirebas profkavSirebisa da biznes-liderebTan erTad. miuxedavad amisa, zogierTi profkavSiruli organizacia, kerZod ki, qveyanaSi udidesi koreis profkavSirTa konfederacia gegmavda sayovelTao saprotesto gaficvas,
raTa axali samuSao kanonis miReba gaeprotestebina, magram profkavSirebis ubralo wevrebma Sewyvites aqcia, raTa qveynis ekonomikis kvlav aRdgena safrTxis winaSe ar daeyenebinaT. samxreT koreis moqalaqeebi ojaxebidan Zvirfaseulobasa da oqroulobas abarebdnen centralur banks, raTa SeevsoT savaluto rezervebi. aseTi darazmva da sazogadoebrivi mobilizacia ar momxdara avtoritarul da korumpirebul indoneziaSi. indonezielebi samwuxarod ar aRmoCndnen mzad reformebiT gamowveuli tkivilis gasaziareblad, radgan mosaxleoba ar grZnobda, rom mTavroba maTi iyo, maT warmoadgenda, maT mxareze iyo. mTavrobam dakarga legitimuroba moqalaqeTa TvalSi. mas Semdeg, rac indoneziis valutam `rRveva~ ganicada da savaluto fondma biujetis xarjviTi nawilis Semcireba (rogorc mas saqarTveloSi pompezurad sekvestrs uwodeben) moiTxova, maSin prezidentma suhartom xalxs mimarTa _ `megobrebo, Cven gvmarTebs qamris cota ufro magrad SemoWera, unda SevkvecoT socialuri programebi da gaviWirvoT, Cven xom yvelani erT navSi vsxedvarT da erT edqves varT!~ amaze aRSfoTebuli xalxis pasuxi iyo _ `batono prezidento, Cven ojaxis rCena aRar SegviZlia, moxucebi pensias ver iReben, bavSvebs skolaSi ver
vuSvebT, wamlis yidvis saSualeba ar gagvaCnia, ar viciT sad viSovoT saWmlis fuli, maSin rodesac Tqveni Svilebi da Tqveni ojaxi, Tqvens klanTan erTad flobs qveynis yvela strategiul simdidres, bunebriv resursebs, avtosawarmoebs, sastumroebs, avtobanebs, aviakompaniebs, navTobs, gazs, da vin mosTvlis kidev ramden sxvas da Tqven kidev grCebaT sindisi imis Tqmisa, rom Cven yvela erT beds qveSa varT? ara gvgonia batono prezidento!~

indonezia qaosSi Caeflo da yvelas kargad axsovs, Tu ra bedi ewia prezident suhartos, romelic 1965 wlidan avtoritarulad marTavda indonezias da mTlianad korufciaSi iyo Cafluli. igi 1998 wels sayovelTao protestisa da qveynis paralizebis fonze Tavslafdasxmuli da Sercxvenili, rogorc korufciis simbolo, gadadga da mis winaarmdeg sisxlis samarTlis saqme aRiZra. me suhartos istoria Cveni sakuTari prezidentis istorias magonebs, isic ase mouwodebs gaWirvebul xalxs _`Cven yvelani erT navSi vsxedvarTo”. me ar minda masac suhartos istoriis gameoreba vuwinaswarmetyvelo, Tumca ki movlenebis logika arc amas gamoricxavs.

globalizaciis pirobebSi rac ufro demokratiuli, pasuxismgebeli da Riaa mTavroba, miT ufro naklebi Sansia imisa, rom qveynis ekonomika da finansuri sistema siurprizebis winaSe dadges, da Tu mainc moulodnelobisa da Sokis pirobebSi aRmoCndeba, igi swrafad moaxdens adaptacias Secvlil pirobebTan da moTxovnilebebTan. rac ufro Ria da patiosania mTavroba, miT ufro meti legitimurobis grZnoba aqvs mosaxleobas da reformebiT gamowveuli droebiTi tkivilis gaziarebac sazogadoebis mier, ufro advilad moxdeba. postkomunisturi sistemis qveynebidan isini, vinc politikuri monawileobisa da konkurenciis maRali doniT gamoirCeodnen, (poloneTi, CexeTi, estoneTi, slovenia) yvelaze win wavidnen sruli ekonomikuri reformisa da ekonomikuri zrdis gzaze, xolo isini, vinc eleqtoratis manipulaciis, korufciisa da naxevarreformebis gziT midiodnen, (ukraina, belorusia, saqarTvelo) ekonomikuri krizisidan Tavis daRwevas ver axerxeben. iseTi politikuri sistema, rogoric saqarTveloSi Camoyalibda, sadac politikuri xelisufleba erTi kacis xelSia koncentrirebuli, e.w. `reformatorebsa~ da `gamarjvebulebs~ namdvili reformis sawyis etapze SeCerebisa da gayinvis saSualebas aZlevs, raTa maT SeinarCunon rentis maZiebluri saqcieli da provilegirebuli `sasaTbure~ pirobebi, ris saSualebasac nawilobrivi reforma iZleva.

makroekonomikuri stabilizacia damokidebulia Tanmimdevrul ekonomikur politikaze. Zalze mniSvnelovania swori nazavis miRweva monetarul da fiskalur politikas Soris. inflaciuri tendenciis aRkveTa da savaWro deficitis Semcireba unda iyos prioriteti. Tumc is didi savaWro deficiti, rac saqarTvelos daugrovda, balansirdeba ucxouri daxmarebebiTa da sazRvargareT myofi Cveni Tanamemamuleebis savaluto transferebiT. qveynis saeqsporto bazis simwire mainc grZelvadian problemebTan aris dakavSirebuli da gadaudebel yuradRebas moiTxovs. Eekonomikuri politikis Semqmnelebma unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom amisaTvis aucilebelia samuSao Zalis bazris Semdgomi liberalizacia da aseve optimaluri savaluto kursis miRweva, raTa moxdes eqsportis stimulireba. mTavrobis strategia sazogadoebrivi finansebis sferoSi unda efuZnebodes qveynis biujetis dabalansebas da misi orive nawilis _ Semosavlebisa da xarjviTi nawilis efeqturobas.

qveynis normaluri funqcionirebisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba gadasaxadTa akrefas. is qveyana, romelic gadasaxadebs ver krefs, jansaR sazogadoebas ver aaSenebs da ver iqceva Tanamedrove sazogadoebad. magram imisaTvis, rom SesaZlebeli iqnes gadasaxadTa akrefa, sagadasaxado sistemis gamartiveba da misi samarTlianoba, saWiroa iatakqveSeTSi wasuli mewarme dRis sinaTleze gamoviyvanoT, rom misi gadasaxadebi biujets amdidrebdes da ara gadasaxadTa amkrefebs, Tu sxva korumpirebul Cinovnikebs. qveynis ekonomikuri saqmianobis gafarToebisa da dinamiurobisaTvis aucilebelia fiskaluri tvirTis Semsubuqeba. aucilebelia martivi, samarTliani da gamWvirvale sagadasaxado sistema, romelic iqneba dafuZnebuli dabal sagadasaxado ganakveTze, sadac adgili ar eqneba kanonis sxvadasxvargvar interpretacias da moqalaqeTa da mewarmeTa motyuebas gadasaxadis gaqnili amkrefis mier.

rodesac qveynis ekonomika moulodneli sagareo Sokis gamo valutis kursis dacemis, sagareo bazris Semcirebis, inflaciisa da ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi aRmoCndeba, antikrizisuli klasikuri receptia savaluto kursis devalvacia da xarjebis Semcireba.

  • devalvacia xasiaTdeba xelfasebis zrdis gayinviT;
  • importze tarifis aweviT;
  • saprocento ganakveTis gazrdiT;
  • sabiujeto xarjebis mkveTri SemcirebiT da SesaZloa gadasaxadebis gazrdiT;

saWiroa:

  • ndobis votumiT aRsavse mTavroba (demokratiuli sazogadoeba ukeT reagirebs Soksa da krizisze);
  • damsxvreva im aragamWvirvale da araefeqturi kavSirisa, romelic arsebobs mTavrobasa da bizness Soris;
  • samuSao Zalis bazris ufro moqniloba (daqiraveba-daTxovis gaadvileba);
  • saerTaSoriso buRaltruli standartebis miReba;
  • komerciuli davis gadawyveta sasamarTloebis mier;
  • maregulirebeli saagentoebi, zurggamagrebuli damoukidebeli sasamarTlo sistemiT;
  • interesTa konfliqtis maregulirebeli kanonmdebloba;
  • kanonmdebloba `insaideris~ informaciis gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg samTavrobo oficiozebis mier.
  • socialuri usafrTxoebis badisa da socialuri dazRvevisgaumjobeseba.

rekomendaciebis sia damokidebulia krizisis donesa da sazogadoebis SigniT socialuri konfliqtis simwvaveze. Tu mTavroba swrafad da disciplinirebulad gaatarebs am RonisZiebebs, krizisi swrafadve daiZleva da Tu amas ver SeZlebs sociluri konfliqtisa Tu sakuTari arakompetenturobis gamo, ekonomikuri krizisi qveyanas didi xnis manZilze gaxdis paralizebuls. 

gagrZeleba

3 Responses to “•მაისაშვილი- ქართული სახელმწიფოს მშენებლობისთვის I”

  1. afxazi said

    DID BODISHS VIXDI, IQNEB QARTULI SHRIPTIT DAWEROT, mec vecdebi qartulit vwero momavalshi…

    Like

  2. בגרויות said

    big like! – thanks .

    Like

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